Nokia X2

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
111 x 47 x 13.3 mm, 61 cc
81 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 entries, Photocall
Yes
48 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 32

Class 32


v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games

Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML (Opera Mini)
Stereo FM radio with RDS; built-in antenna

Bounce Tales, City Bloxx, Snake III, Block'd, Diamond
Rush, Rally 3D, Brain Champion, Sudoku
5 MP, 2592x1944 pixels, LED flash
Yes
Red on black, blue on silver
Yes, MIDP 2.1
- Speakerphone
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- Dedicated music keys
- MP4/H.263 player
- MP3/WMA/eAAC+ player
- Organizer
- Photo editor
- Voice memo
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 860 mAh (BL-4C)
Up to 624 h
Up to 13 h 30 min

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

Nokia N8

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 900 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
113.5 x 59.1 x 12.9 mm, 86 cc
135 gram
AMOLED capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
360 x 640 pixels, 3.5 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Detailed, max 30 days
16 GB storage, 256MB RAM, 512 MB ROM
microSD (TransFlash) up to 32GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 32

Class 32
HSDPA, 10.2 Mbps; HSUPA, 2.0 Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, UPnP technology
v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera

Video
Colors
Java
Symbian ^3 OS
ARM 11 680 MHz processor, 3D Graphics HW accelerato
SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML, RSS feeds
Stereo FM radio with RDS; FM transmitter
A-GPS support; Ovi Maps 3.0
Yes + downloadable
12 MP, 4000x3000 pixels, Carl Zeiss optics,
autofocus, Xenon flash
720p@25fps, LED video light
Dark grey, silver white, green, blue, orange
Yes, MIDP 2.1
- Multi-touch input method
- Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- Scratch-resistant surface
- Speakerphone
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- TV-out via HDMI and composite
- Dolby Digital Plus via HDMI
- Anodized aluminum casing
- Digital compass
- MP3/WMA/WAV/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264/H.263/WMV player
- Voice command/dial
- Document viewer (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF)
- Video/photo editor
- Flash Lite v4.0
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Po 1200 mAh (BL-4D)
Up to 390 h (2G) / Up to 400 h (3G)
Up to 12 h 30 min (2G) / Up to 5 h 30 min (3G)

Image: http://www.techdigest.tv/

Terjadinya Danau Toba

Alkisah, pada zaman dahulu di bagian utara Pulau Sumatera hiduplah seorang pemuda yang telah yatim piatu. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya sehari-hari sang pemuda hidup dari bertani dan memancing ikan. Suatu hari ia memperoleh hasil pancingan berupa seekor ikan yang sangat indah berwarna kuning keemasan. Ketika akan dipegang, ikan tersebut tiba-tiba berubah menjadi seorang puteri yang cantik jelita. Konon, sang puteri dahulu dikutuk menjadi seekor ikan karena telah melanggar suatu larangan. Ia baru akan berubah menjadi puteri kembali apabila ada manusia yang berhasil menyentuhnya.

Oleh karena terpesona akan kecantikan sang puteri, sang pemuda lantas melamarnya. Sang puteri menerima dengan syarat bahwa sang pemuda tidak boleh sekalipun mengungkapkan asal-usulnya. Singkat cerita, selama satu tahun mereka hidup sebagai pasangan suami-isteri dan dikaruniai seorang anak laki-laki. Namun, sang anak ternyata mempunyai sifat yang sangat aneh. Ia tidak pernah merasa kenyang.

Suatu hari, karena merasa lapar sang anak memakan habis hidangan yang disiapkan untuk seluruh keluarga. Sang ayah yang mengetahui kejadian tersebut segera berkata kesal, “Dasar anak keturunan ikan!”

Ungkapan kejengkelan tersebut ternyata berakibat fatal. Janji kepada isteri untuk tidak mengungkapkan asal-usulnya telah dilanggar. Secara tiba-tiba sang isteri beserta anak semata wayangnya menghilang secara gaib. Tanah bekas tempat mereka berpijak pun tiba-tiba mengeluarkan air yang makin lama makin besar dan akhirnya menjadi sebuah danau yang sangat luas. Dan, danau itu kemudian diberi nama Danau Toba.

Sumber:
Diadaptasi secara bebas dari http://eh.web.id

Arya Menak

(Cerita Rakyat Daerah Madura)

Alkisah pada zaman dahulu kala di Pulau Madura hiduplah seorang pemuda yang bernama Arya Menak. Pemuda ini sangat gemar mengembara hingga ke tengah hutan belantara. Dalam pengembaraannya pada suatu malam saat bulan purnama, dia beristirahat di bawah pohon dekat sebuah danau yang jernih arinya. Saat itu ia melihat sebuah cahaya terang yang berpendar di tepi danau tersebut. Karana penasaran, perlahan-lahan ia mendekati sumber cahaya tadi. Dan, alangkah terkejutnya dia ketika melihat bahwa cahaya tadi berasal dari pantulan tubuh tujuh orang bidadari yang sedang mandi sambil bersenda gurau.

Arya Menak pun langsung terpesona akan kecantikan mereka. Timbullah keinginannya untuk memiliki salah seorang diantaranya. Ia lalu berjalan mengendap-endap ke arah tumpukan pakaian para bidadari yang diletakkan begitu saja di bawah sebuah pohon. Kemudian, dengan secepat kilat Aryo Menak mengambil salah satu selendang dari bidadari-bidadari itu.

Selepas mandi, ketujuh bidadari itu segera bergegas keluar dari telaga untuk mengambil pakaian masing-masing. Setelah berpakaian mereka langsung terbang menuju langit ke tujuh. Namun, ada satu bidadari yang tidak dapat terbang karena selendang yang biasa digunakan untuk terbang tidak ada di tempatnya lagi. Sang bidadari yang ditinggal oleh kakak-kakaknya itu lantas duduk terpekur di bawah pohon sambil menangis. Ia sangat bersedih karena tidak dapat lagi terbang ke rumahnya.

Arya Menak yang dari tadi mengintip di balik semak-semak perlahan-lahan mendekatinya. Ia berpura-pura tidak mengetahui apa yang sedang terjadi. Setelah mendapat penjelasan singkat dari sang bidadari, Arya Menak segera berkata, “Ini mungkin memang sudah menjadi kehendak para dewata agar engkau berdiam di bumi untuk sementara waktu. Jadi, janganlah engkau bersedih hati. Aku akan selalu menemani dan menghiburmu.”

Sang bidadari rupanya percaya dengan ucapan Arya Menak. Ia tidak menolak ketika Arya Menak menawarkan untuk tinggal di rumahnya. Singkat cerita, beberapa bulan kemudian Arya Menak melamar sang bidadari. Mereka kemudian hidup sebagai pasangan suami isteri.

Oleh karena bukan seorang manusia biasa, maka sang bidadari tentu saja mempunyai kekuatan gaib. Salah satu contohnya, ia dapat menanak sepanci nasi hanya dari sebutir beras. Namun syaratnya, ketika akan menanak nasi siapapun tidak ada yang boleh menyaksikannya, termasuk Aryo Menak suaminya sendiri.

Dikisahkan, Arya Menak penasaran sebab beras di lumbungnya tidak bernah berkurang meskipun selalu diambil untuk dijadikan makanan. Ketika isterinya sedang mencuci pakaian di sungai, Arya Menak langsung masuk ke dapur untuk membuka panci tempat isterinya biasa menanak nasi. Tindakan ini ternyata membuat kekuatan gaib isterinya menjadi lenyap. Mulai saat itu, Sang Bidadari harus mengambil beras dalam jumlah banyak di lumbung. Lama-kelamaan beras di dalam lumbung menjadi berkurang.

Suatu hari, sang bidadari menjadi terkejut ketika akan mengambil beras yang hanya tersisa sedikit lagi di sudut lumbung. Ia melihat selendangnya yang hilang tersembul di bawah tumpukan beras. Ia lalu mengambil dan segera mencucinya. Setelah itu, sang bidadari langsung mengenakan selendangnya dan terbang ke langit.

Saat Arya Menak pulang ke rumah, ia menjadi bingung karena isterinya tidak ada dan makanan pun belum disediakan. Ia lalu mencari ke sekeliling rumahnya. Pada saat berada di lumbungnya, Arya Menak menjadi sangat terkejut. Selendang milik isterinya yang selama ini ia sembunyikan di sudut lumbung telah raib dari tempatnya. Arya Menak akhirnya sadar bahwa sang bidadari telah menemukan selendangnya dan terbang kembali ke langit. Ia sangat menyesal. Dan, sejak saat itu Arya Menak bersumpah bahwa ia dan seluruh keturunannya akan berpantang untuk memakan nasi.

Diceritakan kembali oleh gufron

Sony Ericsson Zylo

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 900 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
103 x 52 x 11.5 mm
115 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.6 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
2000 entries, Photocall
Yes
260 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, 7.2 Mbps; HSUPA, 2 Mbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 SE PocketPC
Intel XScale PXA263 400 MHz processor
SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML (NetFront), RSS reader
Stereo FM radio with RDS

Yes, incl. motion-based + downloadable
3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels
Yes
Jazz black, chacha silver, swing pink
Yes, MIDP 2.0
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- Scratch-resistant surface
- Speakerphone
- Geo-tagging, videocalling
- Walkman 4.0 player
- FLAC/MP3/eAAC+/WAV player
- SensMe, Track ID
- MP4/H.263/H.264 player
- Google Maps
- Picture editor/blogging
- YouTube, Facebook, Twitter applications
- Voice memo
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion
Up to 340 h (2G) / Up to 400 h (3G)
Up to 4 h (2G) / Up to 3 h 30 min (3G)

Image: http://www.which.co.uk

Tradition, Modernity and Future of Civilization

By Madan Mohan. L Ph.D.

There are two things that we can hope to give to our children; one is the wings and the other, roots. Wings are required to move 'and adapt ourselves with times, for the biggest lesson that we can learn from human history so far is that the only thing that is permanent is change. However, along with it. We also need to assert that if society is to be anything more than a loosely organized chaos in the contemporary age of science, it must recognize that its position and its speed of movement, that is Change, is by the very nature of things indeterminable as evident from Heisenberg's principle of indeterminacy. The present being transient and the future unknown, interdependence rather than independence and multiculturalism rather than materialism, should be stressed keeping firm faith in basic human values. Multi-ethic cultures, traditions and fundamental human rights - the roots of any civilization. It is this fusion of roots and wings that, if persistently pursued today, will raise humanity to a new level of sustainable peace, progress for all. A Latin proverb aptly says - The future always struggles against being mastered but is masterable with roots in past (tradition) and living in present (modernity) ....... "
- President G. W. Bush (Excerpts from his speech on 29th March, 2001 in Polish University).

The origin of human civilization, on this earth is as fascinating as the origin of life itself. Life originated on this earth some 2000 million years ago (though from fossil records, some scientists put this estimate at about 1500 million years ago) in the form of bacterial like unicellular objects (now called microfossils). Thereafter, there has been no stopping with evolutionary emergence of sea weeds and invertebrates (550-450 million years ago), fishes (450-300 million years ago). Amphibian (300--250 million years ago), reptiles, birds and mammals (250-50 million years ago) as well as nature's experiments with mammals (50-30 million years ago). Apes and humanoid varieties (30-1 million years ago), and the final emergence of man some 1 million years ago. Thus, it is clear that man has been in existence for only 1 million years out of me 2000 million years of life or only about 0.05% of the lime. Similar is the case with human civilization that is only about 10,000 years old or mere 1% of man's existence time. We sec in the above sequence complexity, development from simple to complex forms through various stages of evolution. And each stage represents a higher integration of all the component elements till we come to the peak, the human being, about whom Riaisc Fiscal remarked: "Man is but a reed, the weakest thing in nature, but he is a thinking reed", and. Shakespeare went into ecstasies when lie stated. "How beauteous mankind is! Oh brave new world. That has such people in’t’ and further. "...What a piece of work is man! How noble in reason! How infinite in faculty! In form, in moving, how express and admirable! How like an angel! In apprehension how like a cod!" But, this "god" bears in its embryo evidence of its lowly origin. It starts as a single cell (a kind of protozoan) and then becomes a small colony of cells (like a sponge) each of which is callable of separating and starting life on its own. Then it passes through a two-layered stage, like the coebnterates ("hollow gut"), typical representatives of which are jellyfish and the sea anemones. Then comes a third layer, as in the case of the starfish, the sea urchin, and other echinodermata ("spiny skin"). The whole gamut or evolution is repeated. Similar is the case with human civilization, which has slowly evolved from the primitive and simple to the modern but complex type; moving from divergence towards convergence of traditional as well as modem perspectives. Overall, the human civilization can be categorized into three eras and ten main stages as:

A. Era of Primitive Similarity
1. Food Gatherers and Primitive Hunters.
2. Advanced or Big Game Hunters.
3. Matrifocal Agricultures.
4. Early Technologists.
5. Warrior Nomads and Pirates.
B. Era of Theocratic Divergence
6. Techno-Theocratic (River Valley Civilizations).
7. Religio-Hierarchic Agricultural (including feudal).
8. Religio-Mercantile (Religious Bourgeois).

C. Era of Convergence
9. Rational-Mercantile (Bourgeois).
10. Scientific-Democratic-International-Ferninist (Modern).

The chronological order is basically in the sequence given above, although there are exceptions of jumping, missing, extension, and transplantation of stages. These exceptions can be explained through man's experiments with nature for adjustment to changes at different locations and are in unique similarity to nature's experiments with life forms for the same purpose as already discussed in the evolutionary sequence. Thus, in Western Europe, the rehgio-mercantile (First West European high civilization) came before the religio-hierarchic agricultural, as it did in Crete, Russia, parts of West Asia (Syria. Babylonian, Arab-Muslim), parts of South-East Asia (Sri Yijaya, Sailendra Java), parts of Trans-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Mali, Songhai), etc., showing jumping of stases. Some zones and societies have missed some stages. Thus, Europe missed stage 6, i.e., Theocratic Irrigation. Eurasia also missed this and the rational-mercantile was weak there. In South-East Asia, stage 5 (Warrior Aristocrate) was weak while stage 6 (Theocratic Irrigation) was missing. Only west Europe and Japan had the rational-mercantile. Meanwhile, European rational-mercantile was transplanted to North America. Europe developed the scientific-democratic, which was also transplanted to North America, Meso-and South America and appropriated in Russia, later the USSR and Japan. Elsewhere, except in China, reccgnisable scientific-democratic societies existed only thinly or marginally as transplantations. Stages 1.2.4, and 5 were mobile and moved between zones. Stages 3 (Matrifocal Agricultural) and 6 (Theocratic Irrigation) were sedentary but their ideas, products, etc., did radiate out, especially under trader and warrior auspices, often initially foreign.

The characteristic property of various societies mentioned above is that they developed on their own and had their own identities, even in cases of transplantations or extensions from elsewhere, thus, representing unique characteristics, traditions, cultures, and perspectives. The differences between groups B and C indicate that religion or ideological dogmatism. is a great divying factor. It can also be seen that the typologies arc based on the dominant mode of production or distribution; This does not mean that other modes are not in existence but that production or distribution of the type-name is pre-eminent and that it stamps its quality on the society in question. For this purpose, stage 10 production is 'scientific', a term of wider implication than 'industrial' in that it implies never-ceasing research.

In the earliest parts of world history, alt cultures being based on the struggle for existence against a hostile nature, began to operate from the compulsion in the human metabolism to create such conditions as may enable man to master his environment. This creative urge from the human race has been in action, in all stages, sometimes hindered by uncongenial political and social orders and sometimes obstructed by the prolonged wars of personal aggrandisement of powerful tyrants and potentates. Importantly and uniquely, however, in renascent periods there has always been the attempt at integration through the reassertion of the capacity of man to control his destiny. Unfortunately, such attempts in the modern era have led to a dilemma as aptly described by Albert Einstein, one of the most creative intellects and brilliant scientists of the millennium: "Perfection of means and confusion of goals seem in my opinion to characterize modernity". This has been primarily due to the fact that the complex of values that emerged to guide the ancient civilizations in the field of scientific investigations (principally responsible for ushering in the modern era) including the finding of solution about the mystery of universe to attain true knowledge of ultimate reality, culturing science in the background of dharma or natural justice and having a humanitarian end in view, have been lost sight of. The task of integration of different, highly specialized and complex awareness of man in the contemporary period, when there has been a phenomenal multiplication of ascertained facts and adumbrations of the inner worlds, of faculty and experience, also seemed highly impossible and beset with extraordinary difficulties. The frustration, thus, ensued from these factors as well as from the imperfect measures taken to combat these in the name of 'Globalization, Liberalization, and Privatization. This frustration took various forms during the 20th century, out of which the militant form of piety, often known as fundamentalism, erupted in every major religion as the biggest rebellion against modernity. Every fundamental movement convinced itself that scientific, liberal, secular and democratic society is determined to wipe out religion and multi-cultural traditions built up through centuries of human civilization development, thereby, putting the very future of our civilization in perils. Therefore, in order to secure the future of our civilization, the following aspects need to be reasserted and recognized in the modern-scientific civilization. These aspects include:
• Blending modern science with traditions of society/ Sociology of Science.
• Blending modern science with traditional art and history.
• Interaction of Modern Sciences and Religion.
• Interaction of Modern Science and Human Values.
• Strengthening the chain that links Science and Philosophy.

1. Blending Modern Science with Traditions of Society
Science should never be taken as an individual quest or a selfish pleasure, that is, it has value only in so far as it gets linked with the welfare of human community. In the words of Schrodinger, "Never lose sight of the role that application of science and scientific tools have to play within the great performance of tragic-comedy of human life; keep science in touch with life and keep life in touch with science''. Only by keeping the humanitarian end in view of every applied science, can we think of leading science to achieve true happiness and sustainable peace for society - the ultimate aim of my successful civilization. The application to check epidemics, the application to combat poverty, the application to bring in greater transparency in public affairs, the application to build a casteless and classless society, the application to improve human nutrition, the application to strengthen democracy and freedom with responsibility and so on are some of the measures that science can and should adopt but they have to be taken with a new dimension that is, 'Sustainability of Effects'. Without sustainability, tensions and problems of social, psychological, political, and economic nature arise continuously and repeatedly and in a form that is more difficult to control. An integrated personality of a human being should he stressed to vigorously propel the idea of belonging together and check the slow erosion of total and universal personality of a human being. The confusion today is that with the current trends in science, we are knowing more and more about less and less mid to that extent are losing the perception, the vision and the imagination of the whole. This is the problem why fundamentalism is rising. This is the problem why frustration is escalating. Science has to realize that specialized sciences, be it genetics or astrophysics, mathematics or botany, are all like the fingers of a hand; they all from the common matrix of common sense, from man's daily experience, his history, his tradition and his words. Each is now developing a life, an experience and a language of its own but between the tips of fingers there is rare or almost no contact. The need, therefore, is to maintain this contact and continue growing. For efficient democracy and running of political system also, modern science has an important role to play, since political doctrines (be it democracy or totalitarianism or any other form) and Government policies do affect the way of life and conditions of living of the people of a country. Be it education, automation, agriculture, harnessing of nuclear energy, defense, industry, economy or any other social aspect, the role of state and politics is enormous. "As you are, so will be your rulers!" is an often quoted phrase linking society and politics and, thus, the interaction of modem science and politics, political ideologies and the state. In fact, a 'New Panchasheel' for the new millennium can well be proposed: "Child centered Education, Women centered Family, Human centered Development, Knowledge centered Society and Innovation & sustainability centered World".

2. Blending Modern Science with Traditional Art and History
Inherent in a human being are the forces of curiosity and endeavour to achieve means of production and his fundamental urge for inquiry into solving questions about origin of life, its ultimate destination, harrowing pain of existence, body-soul internal imbalances through nature's cruelties, through the evil of other men rooted in personal aggrandisement and through millions of hopes and despairs. All this compels him to cultivate skills and techniques for his search to observe himself and nature and then analyse his experience (for example, Picasso started many pictures with a line that led him to a new possible organic composition by the unconscious-conscious interplay of kinetic faculties using causation, similarity, contrast of colour, line and structure, and many other relations with intense vision and inborn skill). However, if a man finds it necessary to accept certain axioms, which are not proved, they still remain a part of his hunches or apperceptions. The resulting experiments remain suspended between actualisation and aspiration and may or may not become a completely integral part. But, they are put forward or communicated. When a scientist or an artist feels that he has done his best to realize his deepest intentions, his search in a variety of experiences leads to the creation of a balance and a sense of cohesion and harmony with the society (lore example, Ukanawa's hypothesis of meson began as a guess and was not proved until afterwards but today we know these mesons as being the ultimate particles rather than the atoms and this postulated from his hypothesis). Thus, if there is no difference between the inspiration behind a scientific experiment and a work of art or craftwork, then how is it possible that in our machine and scientific age, the hostility between science and art is so visible in the daily life? It is likely that the unity between the two in the ages before modernity was based on the fact that the tools employed in both the primitive experiment and handicraft were simpler and could be wielded; by one and the same man. With industrialization, the nature of tools became more; complex in so far as they became intricate machines and there began a subdivision of labour. This meant the lapsing of personal initiative, which cannot easily be restored, unless and until each workman understands in the contemporary world that he is not a cog in machine, but an important element in the total process.. Hence, this blending of traditional art and history with modern science is w, important issue in today's age for security and well being of future civilization.
3. Interaction of Modern Science and Religion
In his essays on Science and the Modern World, Alfred North Winiehead queried, "When we consider what religion is for mankind and then what science: it is no exaggeration to say that the future course of history depends upon the decision of this generation as to the relations between them". In reply, Albert Einstein, in his famous lecture on Science and Religion noted: "Science without religion is lame, Religion without science is blind".

A careful study of human history indicates two important facts about science and religion. First, that there has always been the conflict between the two (as between Galileo and Catholic Church, and, between Copernicus and Church, etc.) and secondly, that both of them have always been in a state of continual development. If we focus on the first aspect, the genius and role of especially Christianity in western history and society will largely remain undiscovered under its conservatism However, when we focus on the second aspect of continual growth of science and religion, we note the genius of those religions that have endured through long periods of history as significant participants in an ongoing culture and as meaningful elements in personal and collective human lives. This ability to participate in a 'happening' or development or change is one of their greatest but often unnoticed resources. In fact, though their most devout adherents may well argue that they have endured because the truth they possess is eternal and indestructible, the student of religion also notes that it is only those religions, possessing the aptitude of accommodation that have continued over long periods of changing circumstances to have relevance to personal human life and collective human society. Religion need not mean a mere sentimental moonshine based entirely upon faith and imagination, having nothing to do with reason. It is faith, indeed, but faith in the essential rationality of world order and of that which we regard as the ultimate (for example, Quran quotes: 'There must be no coercion in matters of faith! (2:256) and preaches through the Hadith (or tradition): 'Pay the labourer his wages before his sweatdries up'. Religions have taught us both, personal as well as social morality and teachings as well as traditions, and, a need to maintain a fine balance between the two for checking the negative offshoots of any new development. This balance is a significant lesson of the religious history of mankind, which is increasingly under constant threat by modernity, especially with the vivid effects on personal morality. A truly religious life, a life of deep devotion, knowingly or unknowingly, is a life of profound thought. Knowledge or wisdom is always there whenever it is a case of deepening of devotional life. For. in the last resort, true devotion can only be a commitment to truth, which is in fact, also the final goal of science (to find the ultimate truth of life). Thus, the relation between religion and science in the modern world is imperative in balanced form to check negative influences of both religion (called fundamentalism) as well as science (called negative use of science). In (act, we see today a race from every existing religion to explain how scientific is their religion without compromising or abanswing its essential themes. It is this spirit with which religion must be pursued as a tool and a potential weapon to check all that is ignoble and evil in our society and science. Only in this way. can it act as a contributing (and not a disturbing or a destructive force) in the build up of future civilisation based on the provision of effective peace and prosperity to all and sundry.

4. Interaction of Modern Science and Human Values
The outlook of every activity, be it societal or scientific, has to be humanitarian and concerned with human beings. Bu» for an activity concerned with human beings to be punitive in approach and constructive in action, a complex of values to regulate human behaviour is a must, for without it the human intellect is bound to and has the potential to become a formidable dangerous force. This is what has been emphasised in every religion and this is what ushers in through the creativity involved in every art. Isaac Newton once said: "To me science, art and religion are all ultimately one and the same and ultimately lead us to one goal, the goal of self realisation which is the acceptance of the fact that the self means not merely you or I or any individual but the life that pervades all - manifested and unmanifestcd creation and which cannot be even thought of without depiction of true human values in our every endeavour". All the discoveries and advances in technology in the modem world have done one thing, which did not exist before, that is to make us world conscious and materialistic. Every trouble, every difference of opinion, political and otherwise, has now a worldwide repercussion. When Kennedy was assassinated, it became an event of world importance. When Martin Luther King was shot or the World 7; trade Centre towers fell on September 11, once again the fear of world opinion and world conflagrations came into existence. But, unfortunately, in this world consciousness, we all are today far more conscious of the evil than of the good, and, a powerful evil man attracts world attention more than the great man of compassion, unless he be of caliber of Lord Buddha, Lord Krishna, Guru Nanak or Christ (rarely though, such beings come into the world!). Lack of vision of small man, his selfishness, and great knowledge along with the power to achieve personal goals will only lead to the destruction of man by man. But if human values are attached alongside, the same will become a constructive weapon for humanity to live and let live its future generations peacefully and in a healthy and creative environment. An epitome in this direction in the modem era is Bhutan, which has declared as its state policy to respect each other, mutually cooperate and coexist, preserve fundamental human rights and values, take pride in one's culture, create healthy employment opportunities, provide corruption free governance, and live in harmony with nature. This way, it has decided to measure its growth in terms of 'true human happiness' by strengthening it social sector" in the modern era rather than through GDP or other economic indices. The same is true for Norway that has created a culture of strengthened social structure by developing its resources (that is, the people) in its 1000 years of history and has been ranked no. 1 in Human Development Report by United Nations for the year 2001.
5. Strengthening the Chain that Links Science and Philosophy
Since times immemorial, philosophers like Plato, Socrates, and Swami Vivekananda have motivated millions of minds and raised their voices against the brutalities and vices of their times. The coming of Renaissance era in Europe has largely been attributed to the philosophers and thinkers as Rousseau, who said "Man is born free but he is every where in chains". Such is the impact of philosophy on our minds that whenever we talk about a 'creative individual', it is the philosophers who always excel the scientists. Philosophy, according to Russell, is something intermediate between theology and science. Like theology, it consists of speculations on matters on which definite knowledge has so far been unascertainable; but like science, it appeals to human reason rather than to authority, whether that of tradition or that of revelation. And, such has been the ultimate relation of science and philosophy that scientists before 1840 were called 'natural philosophers' as the term 'scientist' was first coined and used by William Whevell of Cambridge. We are already seeing a lot of philosophical concepts as feminism, internationalism, etc., being attached with modernity. Alexander Pope once said:
"Little learning is a dangerous thing,
Drunk deep or taste not the Pierian spring,
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
And drinking largely sobers us again".

This philosophical aspect not only pertains to science, but also to every endeavour that man should undertake in the struggle for existence or in development. To describe in terms of relative psycho-social attitudes: if science is man's ultimate cognitive awareness, philosophy certainly is his ultimate concern, whereas religion is nothing less than his ultimate commitment. Therefore, a chain linking these multidimensional aspects of human life need to be strengthened to get an explicit view of life as Whitehead remarked, "The balance of mind through these aspects should now become part of the tradition which infects cultivated thought. It is the salt that will keep life sweet and continuously growing".

Evolution has taught us great lessons and so have our traditions Humans have evolved after millions of years of patience and complexities of different stages of evolution. Knowledge about each and every aspect of nature call never be obtained without its effect on the researcher himself as a man, on his emotions, his attitude to life, his outlook upon humanity and on his relationship with all. Therefore, the advance-guards of all civilizations should sought to include the various developments in knowledge about the various cultures into a single realm, over which man must remain in harmony with nature if the species called homo sapiens, is to survive in the midst of the still unabsorbed nature. Man will also have to conquer his own dangerous weaknesses and aberrations in order to usher in a future of relative balance to render possible a just distribution of potential of the earth and other planets and will also have to seek some kind of harmony within the dynamic universe. Sri Bhagwan in the seventh chapter of Bhagvad Gita says, "I shall tell you spiritual experience (that lies beyond the scope of reason) plus the scientific experience (worldly and reasonable knowledge); knowing which there is nothing left to be known in this world". In the ninth chapter, he again emphasises that knowing both will free us from evils.

In fact, no one lives alone even if he has to live in two worlds. This is the spiritual experience that comes as a result of contact with nature and it should make one realise that we all belong to a unitary consciousness, whether man, animal. plant, or mineral. If we experience all this as a part of a greater consciousness, this experience would make the present as well as the future of the civilisation healthy, safe and secure and will prevent anybody from saying in future, 'What men call civilisation, always results in deserts!' (Don Marquis). We are lucky to have "the three great elements of modern civilisation - TRADITION, INFORMATION AND RELIGION' (Thomas Carlyle). The onus is, therefore, on us today to rationally analyse, reason and direct their use for humanity and its welfare. The present situation is both a challenge and an opportunity. If considered as an opportunity, be ready to live and create a fruitful, healthy, purposeful and creative future for our progenies but if considered a challenge, he ready to face the wrath of the coming generation, who will stare at the face of man for leaving such a heritage that will shame us throughout as Tennyson has epitomized it beautifully:
"And so, when modern things are thrust.
By death beneath the coffin lid.
Our liberal sons will spun, the dust,
And wonder what is was we did.
References:
1. Coon Carleton S (1955): The Story of Man, New York: Knopf
2. Dobzgasky. Theodosius G (1955): Evaluation, Genetics and Man, New York : Willey
3. Gladwin, Harold Sterling (1947): Men out of Asia, McGraw Hill; New York
4. Alimen H (1957): The Pre-History of Africa, London: Hutchinson
5. Piggot Stuart (1961): The Dawn of Civilization, McGraw Hill; New York
6. Singer Charles & Others (1958): A History of Technology, Oxford University Press, New York
7. Shapiro H ed (1956): Man, Culture and Society, Oxford University Press, New York
8. Butterfield Herbert (1962): The Origin of Modern Science, Collier: New York
9. Feuer Lewis S (1963); The Scientific Intellectual, Basic Books: New York
10. Mantoux Paul (1961): The Industrial Revolution in 18th Centuries, Harper & Row Torch Books : New York
11. White Lynn Jr. (1963): Medical Technology and Social Change, Oxford University Press, London
12. Walker Charles (1962): Modern Technology and Civilization, McGraw Hill; New York
13. Weeks Robert (1961): Machines and Man: A Source Book on Automation, New York: Apletion Century Crofts.
14. Henr Jules (1963): Culture Against Man, New York : Random House

Madan Mohan. L Ph.D., Research Scholar,
Osmania University, Hyderabad

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com

O2 XDA IIs

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
125 x 71 x 19 mm
210 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 65K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 3.5 inches, 53 x 71 mm
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries, 30 fields
Practically unlimited
128 MB RAM, 96 MB ROM
MMC/SDIO
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps



Wi-Fi 802.11b
v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 SE PocketPC
Intel XScale PXA263 400 MHz processor
SMS, MMS, Email, Instant Messaging
Vibration; Downloadable polyphonic ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML (PocketIE)


Jawbreaker, Solitaire
VGA, 640x480 pixels
Yes

Yes
- 39-key QWERTY keyboard
- Handwriting recognition
- Speakerphone
- 44 MB ROM available
- Pocket Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF viewer)
- MP3/MP4 player
- Voice memo
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Po 1490 mAh
Up to 168 h
Up to 4 h

Image: http://www.pocketpcaddict.com

ZTE F928

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
103 x 51.5 x 17.6 mm
100 gram
TFT, 65K colors
240 x 320 pixels
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
Yes

microSD (TransFlash) up to 8GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA 3.6 Mbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML


Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
Yes
Black
MIDP 2.0
- Speakerphone
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264/H.263 player
- Voice memo
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 900 mAh
Up to
Up to

Image: http://mobile.softpedia.com

ZTE F952

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 850 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
108 x 55.5 x 12.6 mm
100 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors
240 x 400 pixels, 3.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
Yes

microSD (TransFlash) up to 8GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA 3.6 Mbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS only
Yes
5 MP, 2592 x 1944 pixels, autofocus
Yes
Black
MIDP 2.0
- Accelerometer sensor
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264/H.263 player
- Voice memo
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1250 mAh
Up to
Up to

Image: http://mobile.yesky.com

ZTE F912

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
105 x 51.8 x 21 mm
100 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
Yes
60 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 8GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA 7.2 Mbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML


Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
Yes
Various
MIDP 2.0
- External OLED, 1 inch
- Speakerphone
- DVB-H broadcasting
- MP3/AAC+ player
- MP4/H.264 player
- Photo editor
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1000 mAh
Up to 250 h
Up to 4 h

Image: http://naijatechguide.blogspot.com

ZTE F233


Specifications
ZTE F233
GeneralNetworkGSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
94 x 48 x 18.9 mm
90 gram
TFT, 256K colors
176 x 220 pixels, 2.0 inches
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
Yes

microSD (TransFlash) up to 8GB
DataGPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA 3.6 Mbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML


Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
Yes
Various
MIDP 2.1
- External CSTN, 1 inch
- Voice command/dial
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 830 mAh
Up to
Up to

Image: http://www.celumobile.com

Nokia 5132 XpressMusic

Specifications
Nokia 5132 XpressMusic
Network2G
3G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
107.5 x 46.7 x 14.8 mm, 65 cc
88 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.0 inches (~200 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
2000 entries, Photocall
Yes
30 MB
microSD, up to 16GB, 1GB included
DataGPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 32

Class 32


v2.0 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS; Ovi Maps 3.0
Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
QCIF@15fps
Gray, yellow
MIDP 2.1
- 3.5 mm jack
- Speakerphone
- Dedicated music keys
- MP4/H.263/H.264 player
- MP3/WMA/WAV/eAAC+ player
- Organizer
- Flash Lite 3.0
- Voice memo/dial
- Predictive text input
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1200 mAh (BL-5C)
Up to 288 h
Up to 6 h

Image: http://www.mobilephone.co.in/201009/nokia-5132-xpress-music-price.html

LG GT405

Specifications
LG GT405
Network2G
3G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
107 x 54.5 x 11.8 mm
98 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors
240 x 400 pixels, 3.0 inches (~155 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 entries, Photocall
Yes
60 MB
microSD, up to 8 GB
DataGPRS
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps
Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA 3.6 Mbps

v2.0 with A2DP, EDR

microUSB v2.0
FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, IM
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS

Yes
5 MP, 2592х1944 pixels, autofocus
Yes
Black, silver, grey
MIDP 2.1
- Loudspeaker
- S-Class Touch UI
- Accelerometer sensors
- Google Maps, Search, Mail
- MP3/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264 player
- Organizer
- Facebook application
- Document viewer (DOC, XLS, PPT, PDF)
- Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger, Skype apps
- Voice memo
- Predictive text input
- Clock
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion
Up to 260 h
Up to 3 h 30 min

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com/lg_gt405-pictures-3215.php

Nokia 7230

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
UMTS 900 / 2100 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
98 x 48 x 14.8 mm, 64 cc
100 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.4 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
2000 entries, Photocall
20 dialed, 20 received, 20 missed calls
45 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB, 2GB included
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 32, 100 kbps

Class 32, 296 kbits
384 kbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email, IM
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
Graphite, Hot Pink
Snake III, Bounce II, Sudoku II, Rally Start
3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels
QCIF@8fps
Graphite, hot pink
MIDP 2.1
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- MP3/eAAC+/WAV/WMA player
- MP4/H.263/H.264/WMV player
- Flickr/Ovi Upload
- Nokia Maps
- Nokia Life Tools
- Widsets
- Flash Lite 3.0
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 860 mAh (BL-4C)
Up to 370 h (2G)
Up to 5 h 24 min (2G)

Image: http://mobiles.sulekha.com

Kutukan Raja Pulau Mintin (Kalimantan Tengah)

Alkisah, pada zaman dahulu di Pulau Mintin daerah Kahayan Hilir terdapat sebuah kerajaan yang terkenal akan kearifan rajanya. Akibatnya, kerajaan itu menjadi wilayah yang tenteram dan makmur. Rakyatnya hidup rukun, makmur, damai dan sejahtera.

Suatu ketika, permaisuri dari sang raja meninggal dunia. Dan, mulai saat itu raja menjadi murung dan nampak selalu bersedih hati. Kesehatannya makin lama makin menurun. Keadaan ini membuatnya menjadi tidak dapat lagi memerintah dengan baik. Untuk menanggulangi situasi yang demikian ini, raja pun berniat berlayar agar hatinya sedikit terhibur.

Agar pemerintahan tetap berjalan sebagaimana biasanya, maka sang raja kemudian menyerahkan tahtanya pada kedua anak kembarnya yang bernama Naga dan Buaya. Mereka menyanggupi keinginan tersebut dengan tujuan agar ayahhandanya segera sembuh dan tidak bersedih hati lagi.

Namun sayang, setelah beberapa bulan memerintah mulailah timbul permasalahan. Hal ini diakibatkan karena kedua orang ini mempunyai kebiasaan yang saling bertentangan. Si Naga mempunyai kebiasaan negatif, seperti: senang berfoya-foya, bermabuk-mabukan dan berjudi. Sedangkan Si Buaya sebaliknya. Ia seorang yang pemurah, ramah terhadap siapa saja, tidak hidup roya, dan suka menolong orang lain yang sedang kesusahan.

Melihat tingkah laku Si Naga yang menghamburkan harta kerajaan untuk berfoya-foya, Si Buaya pun lantas menasihatinya. Tetapi rupanya Si Naga tidak mau mendengar apa yang dinasihatkan oleh saudara kembarnya. Perang mulut pun terjadi dan kemudian berlanjut menjadi perkelahian. Prajurit kerajaan itu akhirnya terbagi menjadi dua kubu. Sebagian memihak Si Naga dan sebagian lagi Si Buaya. Pertempuran besar yang memakan banyak korban jiwa terjadi diantara kedua kubu tersebut.

Di sisi lain, saat dalam pelayaran Sang Raja mempunyai firasat buruk. Ia lalu menyuruh nahkodanya untuk memutar haluan kembali ke kerajaan. Ketika telah berlabuh, betapa terkejutnya Sang Raja menyaksikan kedua puteranya sedang bertarung di dekat pelabuhan. Dengan berang ia berkata, “Kalian telah menyia-nyiakan kepercayaanku. Untuk itu, terimalah hukumanku. Buaya, jadilah engkau seekor buaya yang sebenarnya dan mulai sekarang hidup di air. Tugasmu mulai saat ini adalah menjaga Pulau Mintin. Sedangkan engkau Naga, jadilah engkau naga yang sebenarnya. Engkau akan tinggal di sepanjang Sungai Kapuas. Tugasmu adalah menjaga agar Sungai Kapuas tidak ditumbuhi Cendawan Bantilung.”

Setelah berkata demikian, tiba-tiba langit menjadi gelap dan suara petir pun menggelegar. Dalam sekejap kedua putra Sang Raja beralih wujud menjadi seekor buaya dan naga yang sebenarnya. Mereka lalu pergi ke tempat yang telah ditugaskan oleh Sang Raja.

Sumber:
Diadaptasi secara bebas dari Lambertus Elbar, “Kutukan Raja Pulau Mintin,” Cerita Rakyat Kalimantan Tengah, Jakarta: Depdikbud, 1982, hal. 44-45 dan http://www.seasite.niu.edu/

Award dari Sahabat

Terima kasih untuk kawan-kawan yang telah memberikan award ini kepada saya ^_^
Hatur Nuhun....







Award dari Syahdu Musik



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Vista 84 Award

Nokia C6

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1900 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
113 x 53 x 16.8 mm
150 gram
TFT touchscreen, 16M colors
360 x 640 pixels, 3.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Detailed, max 30 days
200 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB, 2GB included
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 32

Class 32
HSDPA 7.2 Mbps; HSUPA 5.76 Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11b/g
v2.0 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Symbian OS v9.4, Series 60 rel. 5

SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Vibration; MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML, RSS feeds
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS support
Yes
5 MP, 2592 x 1944 pixels, autofocus, LED flash
Yes
Black, white
MIDP 2.1
- QWERTY keyboard
- Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- Geo-tagging, face and smile detection
- Speakerphone
- Yahoo! Messenger, Google Talk, Live Messenger
- MP3/WMA/WAV/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264/WMV player
- Document viewer (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF)
- Flash Lite 3
- Voice command/dial
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1200 mAh (BL-4J)
Up to 384 h (2G)
Up to 7 h (2G)

Image: http://www.feedberry.com

Pantai Nambo (Sulawesi Tenggara)


Wisata alam, khususnya wisata pantai di Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara banyak sekali jumlahnya. Salah satu dari sekian banyak wisata alam tersebut adalah Pantai Nambo yang terletak di Kecamatan Abeli, sekitar 12 kilometer arah selatan Kota Kendari, Ibukota Provinsi Sulawesi Utara. Untuk menuju lokasi Pantai Nambo, dapat melalui dua rute (menggunakan angkutan umum). Rute pertama, menggunakan kendaraan bermotor dengan waktu tempuh sekitar 15 menit dari pusat Kota Kendari. Sedangkan, rute kedua menggunakan perahu tradisional ketinting atau kole-kole dari pelabuhan Kota Kendari menyusuri Teluk Kendari dengan waktu tempuh yang juga sekitar 15 menit.

Kondisi Pantai
Pantai Nambo adalah sebuah pantai landai dengan pasir yang berwarna putih sepanjang sekitar 200 meter. Di sepanjang pantai ini tidak terdapat onggokan batu karang besar, sehingga pengunjung dengan leluasa dapat melihat garis horizon panjang yang mempertemukan langit dan lautan, bermain sambil berlarian menyongsong datangnya air laut yang menghempas ke bibir pantai atau menyaksikan langsung aktivitas nelayan Sukubangsa Bajo yang bermukim tidak begitu jauh dari pantai.

Daya tarik lain yang melengkapi keindahan Pantai Nambo adalah adanya barisan pohon nyiur yang berdiri rapi di sepanjang bibir pantai. pohon-pohon ini juga biasa dijadikan sebagai tempat berlindung bagi para wisatawan di kala terik mentari menerpa pantai. Oleh penduduk setempat, buahnya yang masih muda juga sering diambil dan di jual kepada pengunjung untuk mengobati rasa dahaga.

Fasilitas Pantai Nambo
Fasilitas penunjang obyek wisata Pantai Nambo lengkap, seperti: areal parkir, dua unit kamar bilas mandi, 31 unit gazebo, sebuah villa, serta warung-warung penjual makanan dan minuman. Sebagai catatan, untuk dapat memasuki obyek wisata Pantai Nambo pihak pengelola mematok harga tiket masuk bagi pengunjung hanya sebesar Rp.2.000,00 untuk orang dewasa dan Rp.1.500,00 untuk anak-anak. (gufron)

Foto: http://alandbatara.wordpress.com
Sumber:
http://www.indonesia.go.id
http://www.kompas.com

Pende (Sulteng)

Pende atau pending adalah ikat pinggang yang digunakan pada saat seseorang (perempuan) memainkan tarian khas Sulawesi Tengah. Ikat pinggang ini dahulu umumnya dibuat dari bahan emas atau perak dengan cara dicetak. Pada bagian dalam pende dibuat sebuah tempat untuk memasukkan tali pengikat kain yang berwarna kuning dan diberi hiasan. Saat ini, pende yang digunakan untuk menari bukan lagi dibuat dari emas atau perak melainkan ikat pinggang biasa yang diubah sedemikian rupa hingga menyerupai pende asli.

Sumber:
http://www.infokom-sulteng.go.id/rubrikview.php?id=540&ss=f3c85d3d01&u=

Pawala (Sulteng)

Pawala adalah sebuah gelang yang dahulu hanya dipakai oleh puteri raja saat memainkan tari Pajoge Mardika dalam pesta-pesta kerajaan. Peralatan yang umumnya dikenakan pada pergelangan tangan kanan dan kiri ini dibuat dari bahan emas atau perak dengan cara dicetak dalam bentuk sebuah lingkaran dengan dihias 10 hingga 12 buah anak pawala.

Sumber:
http://www.infokom-sulteng.go.id/rubrikview.php?id=540&ss=f3c85d3d01&u=

ZTE S302

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 900 / 1800
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
103 x 49 x 14.8 mm
79 gram
Monochrome graphic
128 x 48 pixels
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes
20 dialed, 20 received, 20 missed calls


Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB








Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS
Yes

FM radio



Yes
Black, white on orange

- Calculator
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1000 mAh
Up to
Up to

Image: http://www.mobileman.pl

ZTE A261

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 900 / 1800
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
108.5 x 46.8 x 13.3 mm
75 gram (with battery)
CSTN, 65K colors
128 x 160 pixels
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
300 entries
10 dialed, 10 received, 10 missed calls


Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB








Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS
Polyphonic (16) ringtones



Yes


Black

- Calculator
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion
Up to 260 h
Up to 3 h

Image: http://teknologi.vivanews.com

Si Lancang

(Cerita Rakyat Daerah Riau)

Pada zaman dahulu di daerah Kampar ada seorang ibu yang tinggal di sebuah gubuk tua bersama seorang anaknya yang bernama Si Lancang. Hidup mereka sangatlah miskin karena hanya bekerja sebagai buruh tani pada seorang petani kaya.

Oleh karena terus-menerus menderita kesusahan, akhirnya Si Lancang mempunyai niat untuk merantau. Ia pun kemudian meminta izin kepada ibu dan guru mengajinya. Ibunya pun memberikan izin, dengan catatan Si Lancang harus selalu ingat kepada dirinya dan kampung halamannya.

Dengan bersungguh-sungguh Si Lancang berjanji kepada ibunya. Ia lalu menyembah lutut sang ibu untuk meminta berkah sekaligus berpamitan. Dan, sambil terharu sang ibu mendoakan dan membekalinya dengan sebungkus lumping dodak, kue kegemaran Si Lancang.

Singkat cerita, setelah bertahun-tahun merantau, ternyata Si Lancang sangat beruntung. Ia menjadi saudagar yang kaya raya yang memiliki berpuluh-puluh buah kapal dagang. Konon, hal ini terjadi karena Si Lancang berhasil mengawini tujuh orang gadis yang seluruhnya berasal dari keluarga-keluarga saudagar kaya.

Suatu hari Si Lancang berlayar ke Andalas untuk memperluas daerah pemasaran barang agangannya. Dalam pelayaran itu ia membawa ketujuh isterinya beserta barang-barang perbekalan yang mewah dan alat-alat musik sebagai hiburan di tengah lautan. Saat mereka merapat di palabuhan Kampar, alat-alat musik itu mulai dibunyikan dengan riuh rendah. Selanjutnya kain sutera dan aneka hiasan dari emas dan perak digelar untuk menambah kesan kemewahan dan kekayaan Si Lancang.

Berita kedatangan saudagar kaya yang bernama Si Lancang itu dengan cepat menyebar ke seantero Kampar. Sang ibu yang juga mendengar kedatangan anaknya, dengan perasaan terharu bergegas menyambutnya. Dengan pakaian seadanya berupa kain selendang tua, sarung usang dan kebaya penuh tambalan ia pun pergi ke pelabuhan.

Namun, ketika akan menamui anak kesayangannya, para pengawal Si Lancang segera menghadang dan bermaksud hendak mengusirnya. Perempuan itu tetap tidak mau beranjak. Ia bersikeras untuk dipertemukan dengan Si Lancang. Situasi itu akhirnya menimbulkan keributan.

Mendengar ada keributan yang terjadi antara para pengawalnya dengan penduduk lokal, Si Lancang yang diiringi oleh ketujuh isterinya segera mendatanginya. Dan, betapa terkejutnya ia ketika menyaksikan bahwa yang sedang bertengkar dengan para pengawalnya itu tidak lain adalah ibu kandungnya sendiri. Namun, karena ibunya berpenampilan lusuh layaknya seorang pengemis, maka Si Lancang pun segera mengusirnya. Ia malu apabila hal ini sampai diketahui oleh para isteri dan pengawalnya.

Sementara itu, si ibu yang diusir oleh anak kandungnya sendiri menjadi marah. Ia kemudian berkata, “Engkau Lancang … anakku! Tidak tahukan engkau, betapa aku sangat merindukanmu. Sekarang engkau mencampakkan aku begitu saja. Sungguh durhaka engkau padaku!”

“Mana mungkin aku mempunyai ibu sepertimu. Engkau hanyalah seorang miskin yang mengaku menjadi ibuku ,” jawab Si Lancang Dengan ketus.

“Sana pergi! Aku tidak mau melihat mukamu lagi di sini!” lanjut Si Lancang, “Pengawal, segera usir perempuan gila ini!”

Ibu yang malang itu pun akhirnya pulang dengan perasaan yang hancur. Sesampai di rumah, ia lalu mengambil pusaka yang dahulu diberikan oleh suaminya. Pusaka itu berupa lesung penumbuk padi dan sebuah nyiru. Sambil memutar lesung dan mengipas nyiru ia berdoa kepada Tuhan, “Ya Tuhanku….hukumlah Si Lancang yang telah durhaka kepadaku.”

Setelah berkata demikian, beberapa menit kemudian turunlah badai topan yang sangat dahsyat. Badai yang datang dari arah lautan itu bergerak sangat cepat dan dalam sekejap saja telah menghancurkan kapal-kapal yang sedang berlabuh, tidak terkecuali kapal dagang Si Lancang yang megah. Kapal tersebut hancur berkeping-kepung. Isi kapal beterbangan ke segala arah. Kain suteranya terbang dan jatuh di sekitar Kampar Kiri yang akhirnya menjadi negeri Lipat Kait. Gongnya terlempar ke daerah Kampar Kanan dan menjadi Sungai Oguong. Tembikarnya melayang menjadi Pasubilah. Sedangkan tiang benderanya terlempar hingga sampai di sebuah danau yang sekarang diberi nama Danau Si Lancang. Sementara itu, Si Lancang beserta isteri dan para pengawalnya juga terlempar ke berbagai arah di sekitar Kampar.

B.M. Syamsuddin. “Banjir Air Mata Si Lancang,” Cerita Rakyat dari Riau 2. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo, hal. 44-49

Sumber: http://www.seasite.niu.edu

ZTE Xiang

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 900 / 1900 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
114 x 66 x 11.9 mm
120 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 65K colors
320 x 240 pixels, 2.5 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Practically unlimited
256 MB RAM, 128 MB ROM
microSD (TransFlash) up to 8GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, 7.2 Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11b/g
v2.0 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Microsoft Windows Mobile 6.1 Professional
Qualcomm MSM 7225 528 MHz processor
SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, IM
Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS support
Yes
3.2 MP, 2048x1536 pixels, autofocus, LED flash
Yes
Black, silver
MIDP 2.1
- QWERTY keyboard
- WAV/WMA/eAAC+/MP3 player
- MP4/WMV/H.264/H.263 player
- Pocket office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OneNote, PDF)
- Organizer
- Voice memo
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1300 mAh
Up to 200 h
Up to 4 h

Image: http://palmare.idnes.cz

The Missing Link Or The Extraterrestrial Link

By Amlan Roychowdhury

Way back in the year 1986 when I was Perusing my Masters degree in the field of anthropology an incident of one day still haunted me until I decided to delve into it further. My Professor Dr.D.P.Mukherjee was lecturing us about the psychosomatological evolution of human beings. This was a series of lectures which delved with the physical evolution from primate to being Homo sapiens. Very interesting was the fact that we humans have developed from early apes through the intermediates on to what we are today. Documenting this very chronological process was a series of paleontological and palaeo anthropological finds in terms of fossils discovered at various times in various places. From Australopithecus to pithecanthropus erectus to homo Neanderthals to the Cro-Magnon man to Homo sapiens to homo sapiens sapiens. These are the major fossil finds that describe the chronology of the physical evolution. The Australopithecus was more like a ape, but a little more refined than the chimpanzee. The length of the arm was longer below the knees but they had started to show bipedal gait which is a very prominent evolutionary feature on its way to becoming a human. The cranial capacity was about 400cc to 500cc which meant that the brain was still in the process of development. Therefore this ancestor of ours showed little intelligence the same level we can see in the chimpanzees. They even must have used certain tools like the chimpanzee uses a stick to remove ants from an ant hole. Physical evolution basically had to occur in five major directions.

1. The arms reduced in length. We might have noticed that the primates have arms which are long enough to reach beyond the knee length. This extended arms helped the primate to do knuckle walking as seen in the gorillas and the chimpanzee. The reduction in the arms length was the first step towards making a human out of a primate.

2. The thumb and the great toe came in line with the other appendages. The ninety degree alignment of the thumb and the great toe was of great help to the primate as they were arboreal in nature and the opposing thumb and the great toe helped them to grasp the branches of the tree. Humans had to come down from the tree and start living on the plains and forests and for that they needed stability while standing and running and that is the reason for the evolution to proceed in that direction where by the appendages aligned in line with the others.

3. Pelvis got centered there by distributing the load effectively between the two legs. This would give the hominid more vertical stability and hence the evolving hominid would no longer need the tail. The tail therefore diminished and today we humans have a remnant of the tail which is anatomically known as the coccyx.

4. All the above three direction of evolution helped the hominid to have bipedal gait leaving the hands totally free to do things that the intelligent brain would direct it to do in future. With bipedal gait the vision also improved to a great extent, accurate judgment of distance now became possible with the ability of the brain to process the image coming from two inputs and merging them together to give a three dimensional binocular perspective of the object.

5. The structural changes done the brain now well in its optimum place developed from a mere 400 cc to 1500 cc. The cranial capacity increased greatly and so did the intelligence. Level of intelligence development can be seen quite chronologically from Australopithecus to homo erectus to homo erectus erectus. Early hominids developed stone tools as the brain processed the requirement and started finding solutions for those requirements. They then started staying in large groups there by requiring some social structure and laws to keep the group from disintegrating and also realizing that the group functions better and viably than being individualistic. There is a clear indication of division of labor which is a very strong indication of sophisticated and multifaceted intelligence.

What was interesting in that lecture was the fact the next step in the physical evolution ,the Homo Neanderthals show a tremendous spurt of intelligence with cave drawings, more refined weapons and accessories and much more complex social structures and rituals like the burial rituals which indicates a very high form of intelligences and a concept of death whereby the dead is believed to go into another world. Some sort of language also developed and communication was established and information was being passed on from one generation to the other. There seems to be no intermediate fossil find to prove that the intelligence also developed chronologically to and from the level that we find in Homo Neanderthals. Our professor explained that here is the concept of the "missing link".

During this period I was reading a book by Eric Von Daniken and was a great fan of him by the time I finished reading his book Chariots of fire in which he described that the extraterrestrial life form came upon to the earth and had intercourse with the population of the earth and thereby the extraterrestrial intelligence then percolated through. I also met Mr Daniken during that period of time when he had come to visit Kolkata University. Authors like Erich von Däniken claim that Earth was visited by extraterrestrials and that some sort of genetic engineering was performed by these ancient astronauts. That they created or changed the human race. For over 30 years, Erich von Däniken has pursued the theory which postulates that Earth might have been visited by extraterrestrials in the remote past. Erich von Däniken has become famous for an infamous idea: that the origins of human culture lie not simply in evolution, but in the influence of extraterrestrial beings. Beginning with his first book, "Chariots of the Gods", he has argued that the artifacts of ancient cultures show evidence of these visitors, who were sometimes viewed by humans as gods.

He referred to ancient Inca, Aztec, Egyptian and even Indian holy writings to gather proof for his theory. In the Vedic literature of India, there are many descriptions of flying machines that are generally called vimanas. These fall into two categories: (l) manmade craft that resemble airplanes and fly with the aid of birdlike wings, and (2) complex structures that fly in a mysterious manner and are generally not made by human beings. The machines in category (l) are described mainly in medieval, secular Sanskrit works dealing with architecture, military siege engines, and other mechanical contrivances. Those in category (2) are described in ancient works such as the Rig Veda, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas, and they have many features analogous of UFOs. I remember reading in the book Chariots of fire that the Buddhist has a clear cut concept on extra terrestrial visit. In their holy scripture there is a mention of God coming in from the heaven in a ball of fire and emerging from that ball.

Cradled in South Africa's Krueger National Park lies a private game reserve called Timbavati. This emerald jewel of the African bush is almost mythical in reputation. White lions are born in here, it is said. "A long story is told about a chieftainess called Numbi," Elder Credo recounts. "Many generations ago, she and her people saw a burning white light like a star fall out of the sky right where Timbavati is today. The story is that it was not a star; it was a shining ball of metal, brighter than the Sun. When this ball came down to the ground, Queen Numbi, who was a sick old woman at that time, went towards the light and was swallowed by the light. In that light, very faintly seen, were strange beings with very large heads. These beings received Numbi into the light, and for some hours she was inside. When she emerged and walked toward her people; she had become much younger than when she had gone into the light.

"After that star fell, stayed on the ground for some days, and then rose back into the sky, strange things started happening there. Cattle with two heads were born repeatedly. Lions, leopards and even impalas with snow white fur and green eyes were born, until to this very day. This story is one of the most amazing in Africa. Even to this day, white animals are still being born in Timbavati. Some years ago, a snow white elephant with beautiful blue eyes and long tusks used to roam the area, until white adventurers shot it.

Our ancestors were apt with the art and science of water. Since respecting the Nature was inborn, water was considered divine. Rig-Veda is full of ‘shlokas' in praise of Water, Sun and Air, the three essentials of our environment.

The connection between the origin of the earth and water is mentioned both in the ancient scriptures and modern science. Rig-Veda, (X.129.3) says the earth was originally all water without light. Expert on geo-tectonics, Deming in one of his papers published in 2004 claims that Plate Tectonics started on the earth 2.5 billion years ago. Prior to this during the first two billion years the nature of the Earth's crust is not known, evidences suggest formation of continental crust through hydrolysis of primordial crust. The process must have required huge quantities of water and that probably came from extra-terrestrial accretion! The physico-chemical properties of water are such that it is a universal solvent. It is this property which makes water the major carver of the landscape of our earth. The landscape carved by water action is unique and distinctive when viewed from the space.

"Yaapo divyaa utavaa sravanti khanitrimaa utavaa yaa swayarn jaa /

samudraartha yaa soochayapaavakaasta aap devi iha mamavantu //"

(Rig-Veda, VII 49.2)

The nature of water described in the ancient Indian scripture Rig-Veda translates as:

‘The waters which are from heaven

and which flow after being dug,

and even those that spring by themselves,

the bright pure waters which lead to the sea,

may those divine waters protect me here'.

Having said this I would like to bring to the notice of my readers that the Vedas are full of technological wonders and as mentioned earlier the concept of a flying vehicle is not new. Much before the Wright brothers, deep in the history of mankind as ancient as 9000 year BC ie 11000 years from present there is mention of Flying vessels and that too different types of flying machines powered by different types of fuel. One interesting concept of flying interstellar spaces at high speed is that, one would require a flying machine which would be exactly circular in shape. The circular shape is the ideal shape of a space ship which has to travel in very high speed because at high speed, at speed nearing to the speed of light, any cosmic particle if crashes with the skin of the spaceship would have a disastrous effect but if the space ship is circular in shape then the particles if collide with the skin of the ship would fly off tangentially and would have very minimal impact effect on the skin of the ship. The mention therefore of a ball of fire descending is not imagination but a recollection from the memory. If you go to a museum to see artifacts from ancient times, or if you read about texts written by ancient peoples, you find many references to ‘Gods' and ‘heavens'. It could make you wonder: what did ancient peoples understand about the cosmos? In order to answer this question, we should first ask another: what did they actually see? Ancient peoples like the Sumerians, the Egyptians, the Maya and the builders of Stonehenge could only use their eyes to observe the skies.

They had no telescopes, none of the instruments and science we have today. In fact, many tools they used in daily life were quite primitive compared to what we have today. On the other hand, there were no bright lights around them. They must have looked at the skies much more often and must have been more aware of it than we are. They must have felt emotions like awe, inspiration and admiration when looking at the skies, and also fear of the unknown. Ancient legends and archaeological findings from many parts of the world seem to indicate that the skies were seen as the place where the Gods came from. Did ancient peoples make observations and emotions into religion, as is often assumed?

Remarkably, ancient cultures seemed to understand a lot about astronomy, to be very advanced. They practiced astronomy. They understood that the sun was the centre of our planetary system, they knew the planets in it, they calculated time and seasons using the stars. They navigated the seas, which require certain knowledge of planet Earth's position within the universe. Come to think of it, the sky was more important to them than the Earth - we could say that they were more advanced in astronomy than in other areas of life. Thanks to the work of Robert Temple, in his book entitled The Sirius Mystery, the startling knowledge of Sirius and its dwarf companion by Africa's Dogon tribe is widely known. The Dogon possess knowledge, such as the star system's orbital periods and the companion star's invisibility, which cannot be confirmed by naked eye observation, and which modern Astronomers have learned only relatively recently. Something must have happened that caused them to have this orientation and beliefs. For example: what if the notion that the Gods visited Earth as some sort of astronauts is not a religious notion, not a fantasy of primitive peoples? Maybe some ancients actually saw them? Maybe they actually interacted with them, maybe they had things done to them?

Another famous proponent of such ideas is Zecharia Sitchin. Sitchin has made an in-depth study of ancient Sumerian clay tablets. More specifically, Sitchin attributes the creation of the ancient Sumerian culture to the "Annunaki" (or "Nephilim"), a race of aliens from a planet he calls Nibiru. According to Sitchin's interpretation of Sumerian cosmology, there is an undiscovered planet which follows a long, elliptical orbit, reaching the inner solar system roughly every 3,600 years. This planet is called Nibiru (the planet associated with Marduk in Babylonian cosmology). Nibiru was the home of a technologically advanced human-like extraterrestrial race called the Anunnaki in Sumerian myth, which Sitchin states are called the Nephilim in Genesis! He asserts that Sumerian mythology reflects this view, though his speculations are entirely discounted by professional scientists, historians, and archaeologists, who note many problems with his translations of ancient texts and with his understanding of physics. He states that gods or "Annunaki" from the planet Nibiru arrived on Earth 450,000 years ago created the ancient Sumerian culture. According to him, the planet Nibiru orbits our Sun every 3,600 years so the Annunaki will probably return in the near future. The Sumerian Civilization is considered by many scholars as one of the oldest human civilization on Earth, arising in the lower Tigris-Euphrates region (modern day Southern Iraq), ending roughly 2000 BCE (Before Current Era – 4000 years ago from today), and beginning thousands of years prior to that time. This civilization appeared seemingly out of nowhere as a highly advanced, thriving culture circa 4000 BCE (although the Sumerians as a culture may have arrived as early as 8500 BCE, or even much earlier). In what is considered by some scholars "the most crucial event in human history" (3), the Sumerians developed a highly sophisticated system of irrigation and agriculture, quickly established magnificent cities, advanced governing laws, and a written language. It was as if these humans had help in developing their civilization!

The Sumerian ancient literature included the Anunnaki, in all respects the gods and goddesses (and lesser deities) of this ancient civilization.

"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose... There were nephilim in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown." -- Genesis 6:1-4 [emphasis added] Nephilim is often translated as "giants", a legitimate and possibly appropriate interpretation but one which may be only partially accurate. A better definition might be "those who came down", "those who descended", or "those who were cast down." The Anunnaki of ancient Sumerian texts are similarly defined as "those who from heaven to earth came". Sitchin (4), Gardner (5), and Bramley (6) have all identified the Nephilim as the Anunnaki, although the term may apply more specifically to essentially the rank and file of these particular extraterrestrials. Virtually all open-minded historical and theological scholars agree that the Old Testament's Book of Genesis was extracted from older Sumerian records, circa 600 BCE. The Enuma Elish (the Sumerian Epic of Creation) and Genesis have a variety of common elements. Stories of a Great Flood and Deluge are also common to both Sumerian and Biblical accounts. An inevitable conclusion is that the Anunnaki were as real as Noah, Moses or Abraham.

Laurence Gardner (5) has written: "Every item of written and pictorial attestation confirms that the ancient Sumerians were absolutely sincere about the existence of the Anunnaki, and those such as Enki, Enlil, Nin-khursag and Inanna fulfilled earthly functions with designated community duties. They were patrons and founders; they were teachers and justices; they were technologists and kingmakers. They were jointly and severally venerated as archons and masters, but there were certainly not idols of religious worship as the ritualistic gods of subsequent cultures became. In fact, the word which was eventually translated to become ‘worship' was avod, which meant quite simply, ‘work'. The Anunnaki presence may baffle historians, their language may confuse linguists and their advanced techniques may bewilder scientists, but to dismiss them is foolish. The Sumerians have themselves told us precisely who the Anunnaki were, and neither history nor science can prove otherwise."

The Sumerian records recorded in great detail the stories of the Anunnaki, and among these, that of Enki, Enlil, Ninki, Inanna, Utu, Ningishzida, Marduk, and many others. Chief among these stories was the continuing conflict between Enki and Enlil, the sons of the supreme "god" of the time, Anu. Much of ancient human history, and the Biblical Genesis, can be explained as the militant differences between these two half-brothers, and how they affected the life of all sentient beings on Earth. The Anunnaki were more than just a pair of squabbling half-brothers. They were the council of Gods and Goddesses, who periodically met to consider their future actions with respect to each other, and probably as a smaller, nondescript item on their agenda, the fate of mankind. The Anunnaki, depending upon the context, were the Nephilim, the gods that Abraham's father, Terah, was reputed to have served (according to the book of Joshua), the fallen angels, the lesser individuals of the race from which Anu, Enki, Enlil, Inanna and the other notables had sprung, and the "judges" over the question of life and death. They were in fact the bene ha-elohim, which translates as "the sons of the gods", or equally likely, "the sons of the goddesses." For example, from Psalms 82:

"Jehovah takes his stand at the Council of El to deliver judgment among the elohim."

"You too are gods, sons of El Elyon, all of you."

According to Zecharia Sitchin and his interpretation of ancient Sumerian texts (4), the Anunnaki were extraterrestrials (aka "angels"), who were an extremely long-lived race, potentially living as long as 500,000 years. Laurence Gardner (5) reduces this to more on the order of 50,000 years, and notes specifically that the Anunnaki were not immortal. He point out that no records are currently extant which relate to their natural deaths, but the violent deaths of Apsu, Tiamat, Mummu, and Dumu-zi are provided in some detail. While Sitchin and Gardner may disagree with the extent of the long lives of the Anunnaki and other specifics, it is clear that these gods and goddesses, baring accidents or "Anunnaki-cide", lived a very long time. It might also be theorized that because of their long lives, they did not quite move in "the fast lane" -- at least to the extent humans do. This difference in the pace of a lifestyle could be fundamentally important in that the human life span -- while enormously brief as compared to the Anunnaki -- might be compensated in the form of humans possessing an ability to achieve a great deal in a relatively short time. The creativity of a shortened and thus highly motivated lifespan is likely to be enormously greater than that of an Anunnaki resting on his or her laurels. This may also relate to why the Anunnaki bother with mankind. Humans may act as workers to accomplish the Anunnaki's agenda but an accelerated creativity may be even more desirable from the extraterrestrial view.

The connection between humans and the Anunnaki is much more profound than that of masters and slaves, however. The evidence from Sumerian

literature and records strongly advocates the concept that Adam and Eve and their ancestors were created by the genetic engineering and mixing of the DNA of the Anunnaki and that of Homo erectus, the reigning progenitor of the species of man at the time. More importantly, the evidence suggests that the group of extraterrestrials called the Anunnaki were responsible for the genetic experiments (circa 250,000 B.C.E.) which transformed Homo erectus into Homo sapiens. This was done by combining the Anunnaki DNA with the DNA of the early ancestor of man. From there, presumably, man further evolved into the modern version, Homo sapiens sapiens, potentially due to continuing intervention by the Anunnaki.

The implication, of course, is that there is no "missing link" in the evolution of mankind from the apes, but in fact a quantum leap, an intervention by an extraterrestrial intelligence. As has been reported elsewhere in some detail (10) evolutionary theory and intervention by an intelligence (the latter aspect more general and valid than any so-called "Intelligent Design") are not competing theories so much as complementary ones. Evolution continues on a more or less routine basis, but nothing in evolution prohibits occasional interventions. It is obvious, for example, that mankind is intervening in the normal process of evolution, sometimes to the detriment of various species, i.e. neither by design nor particularly intelligent.

Vedic civilization is older than the Sumerian civilization and all other civilization that evolved in the face of the earth. In my earlier articles I have tried to establish that very fact, with some valid points and proofs. Sanskrit was the language that was used by the Vedic civilization to propagate knowledge. The language itself is a tremendous proof of intelligence, an intelligence factor that does not seem to be earthly. According to a research article published in German's forbes magazine in July 1987 Sanksrit is THE BEST language spoken by humans which can be used like a programming language to develop software!! This is because unlike all other human languages the grammar and syntax of Sanskrit is scientifically well defined, so that a computer can understand it and it can be programmed logically.

The sound of each of the 36 consonants and the 16 vowels of Sanskrit are fixed and precise since its very creation. They were never changed, altered, improved or modified. All the words of the Sanskrit language always had the same pronunciation as they have today. There was no sound shift, no change in the vowel system, and no addition was ever made in the grammar of the Sanskrit in relation to the formation of the words. The reason is its absolute perfection by its own nature and formation, because it was the first language of the world.

When a language is spoken by unqualified people the pronunciation of the word changes to some extent; and when these words travel by word of mouth to another region of the land, with the gap of some generations, it permanently changes its form and shape to some extent. Just like the Sanskrit word matri, with a long "a" and soft "t", became mater in Greek and mother in English. The last two words are called the "apbhransh" (deformed forms) of the original Sanskrit word "matri". Such apbhranshas of Sanskrit words are found in all the languages of the world and this situation itself proves that Sanskrit was the mother language of the world. –

Sanskrit is an alien language that was brought to earth by those aliens (ancient Indians including sages and warriors) who came to earth from their mother planet. They came to earth pre vedic period and their era on earth is the vedic period at the end of which the Mahabharatha war happened which definitely was a nuclear war (based on the descriptions of weapons provided in mahabharatha which clearly is identified as a nuclear weapon by many experts including Oppenheimer- The father of modern atomic bomb) and also based on the fact that Mahabharatha says that in the final great war over 14 billion people were killed in a matter of less than 3 weeks!! Note: Current population of earth is 6 billion!!

Vedas are ancient Indian texts written in Sanskrit. Vedas are the total compilation of the scientific and technological knowledge of the people of the vedic era which was taught to the people on the earth by the alien visitors. First they set up ashrams (schools) here to teach the local inhabitants of earth Sanskrit. Then they wanted to teach the people of earth all the knowledge they had. For this purpose Veda Vyasa, a chief scientist compiled all the knowledge they had then in the form of four vedas. That is the reason vyasa is called Veda Vyasa. He also documented the history then till end of mahabharatha war in the form of the world's largest epic Mahabharatha.

Veda itself in sanskrit means "Complete knowledge" !! It is a very wrong notion for people to think that vedas are just hymns in the praise of gods and godesses. I feel sorry when I see vedas being used in temples of India today just to praise gods and godesses by the priests. Vedas are much more than that. If they were just hymns or praises then why is the so well established vedic mathematics a part of vedas??

Vedic mathematics is purely mental mathematics, people can even do modern calculus and trigonometry with a greater ease if they know vedic mathematics. A lot of VEDIC MATHEMATICS is been taught in many schools in the west today in the name of MENTAL MATHEMATICS !! By the way of the four vedas which Vyasa compiled vedic mathematics is a part of Atharva Veda and it makes a lot of sense to be so because Atharva Veda is all about engineering technologies.

Mathematical secrets of the universe are mentioned in the Vedas like a time cycle of 4,320,000,000 years and names for numbers from one to ten to ten followed by twelve zeroes (1,000,000,000,000,000). The zodiacal number 360 and its divisions and derivatives are common in Vedic texts. Vedic mantras are said to be inherent in the rays of the Sun. Noted Vedic scholar Subhash Kak has found a planetary code in the numbering of the books of the Rig Veda.[xi]

"Everybody knows the speed of light is 186,000 miles which is actually discovered in 1675 by ROMAR. But the hymn 1.50 of the Rigveda on the Sun, says

[O Sun] you who traverse 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa.The usual meaning of yojana is about 9 miles as in the Artha´saastra and for nimisha.

The measures of time are thus defined in the Puranas:

15 nimesa = 1 kastha

30kastha= 1 kala

30 kala = 1 muhurta

30 muhurta = 1 day-and-night

A nimesa is therefore equal to 16/75 seconds. It does come very close to the correct figure of 186,000 miles per second."

Vedic astrology contains an extensive knowledge not only of the planets, signs and houses but of the 27 Nakshatras or lunar constellations going back to the Vedas.[xii] The Vedas relate the Nakshatras to various deities and rishis and states that after death the soul can travel to the star it is most connected to in life. The mythology of the Nakshatras is quite profound and helps us understand the ancient star lore of many cultures.

Vedic astrology divides the lunar month of twenty nine and a half solar days into thirty equal lunar days or tithis. This amounts to 371 tithis in a solar year of 365 days. The number of deities in the Rig Veda are 3339, or 371 X the mystic number 9, reflecting the importance of the influence of the Moon. The Vedas were oriented to astronomical influences of a profound order and at perhaps a much earlier date than that of Babylonia. Besides the knowledge side of the Vedas, there are also important historical implications of the Vedic literature. Vedic literature along with the current state of archaeology and genetics suggests a much longer history for the Vedas in India, perhaps extending into the Ice Age Period. It suggests that the Vedic idea of previous cycles of civilization may indeed reflect Ice Age cultures. For example, the Puranas regard agriculture the creation of Manu Chakshusha, the fourth Manu, before the fifth Manu Vivasvan of the flood. We do note that agriculture began already in the late Ice Age period more than ten thousand years ago.

Dr. Richard L.Thompson's book, page 216-217. Here, he discusses the various "powers" known as siddhis that cosmic or extraterrestrial beings visiting earth at the time, ["Vedic humanoids,"] frequently discussed in the Vedas, had readily available to them. These siddhis were also said to be available to certain illuminated human masters as well: Mental communication and thought-reading. These are standard among Vedic humanoids, but normal speech through sound is also generally used. Being able to see or hear at a great distance.

Laghima-siddhi: levitation or antigravity. There is also a power of creating tremendous weight.

Anima- and mahima-siddhis: the power to change the size of objects or living bodies without disrupting their structure.

Prapti-siddhi: the power to move objects from one place to another, apparently without crossing the intervening space. This power is connected with the ability to travel into parallel, higher-dimensional realms.

The ability to move objects directly through the ether, without being impeded by gross physical obstacles. This type of travel is called vihayasa. There is also a type of travel called mano-java, in which the body is directly transferred to a distant point by the action of the mind.

Vasita-siddhi: the power of long-distance hypnotic control. Vedic accounts point out that this power can be used to control people's thoughts from a distance.

Antardhana, or invisibility.

The ability to assume different forms or to generate illusory body forms.

The power of entering within another person's body and controlling it. This is done using the subtle body Although many "academics" would automatically throw out these ideas as being far too mind-bending to be real, there are repeated examples of many of these "siddhis" appearing in ordinary people in our modern age. Michael Talbot's incredible book The Holographic Universe covers these types of events in great detail. In Dr. Thompson's book, a far-reaching series of correlations are made between these phenomena as expressed in the Vedas and the many various UFO reports that have come about in this wide-ranging field. Simply put, we can see that a society that could command abilities like those listed above would be truly extraordinary, and would obviously be viewing life from a much different perspective than that which we now have.

Returning to our immediate discussion regarding extraterrestrials, Dr. Thompson reveals the Vedic perspective on the nature and abundance of extraterrestrial life on the page before the above list is given:

The Puranas speak of 400,000 humanlike races of beings living on various planets and of 8,000,000 other life forms, including plants and lower animals. Out of the 400,000 humanlike forms, human beings as we know them are said to be among the least powerful. This, of course, ties in with the picture that emerges from accounts of UFO encounters.

Clearly, our current society does not have open contact with our alleged visitors. In a society that did have such contact, the view of the Universe would indeed be very different - especially with the knowledge that humankind was "among the least powerful" of the other races of beings that it was aware of. And yet, even though it was still in the kindergarten version of universal evolution, at that time the Rama / Atlantean civilization possessed inner qualities and outer technology that are only just now becoming tangible for us.

It is important that we note that although some vimana appear to have been airplanes, there were other designs in use that apparently go far beyond any technology that we now openly possess. The most important Vedic text on the vimana, says Childress in Vimana Aircraft of Ancient India and Atlantis, is the Vaimanika Sastra, first reported to have been found in 1918 in the Baroda Royal Sanskrit Library. One of the most vivid descriptions of ancient astronaut visitations can be deducted from the Vedic literature of India. In it are many descriptions of machines or chariots that are flying through the sky. These flying objects are named "vimanas".

In 1875, the Vaimanika Sastra, a fourth century B.C. text written by Bharadvajy the Wise, using even older texts as his source, was rediscovered in a temple in India. It dealt with the operation of Vimanas and included information on the steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightening and how to switch the drive to "solar energy" from a free energy source which sounds like "anti-gravity"!

Many excerpts of ancient sanskrit texts refer to the vimanas: "two storey sky chariots with many windows, ejecting red flame, that race up into the sky until they look like comets . . . to the regions of both the sun and the stars." (Mahabharata) "Now Vata's chariot's greatness! Breaking goes it, And Thunderous is its noise, To heaven it touches, Makes light lurid [a red fiery glare], and whirls dust upon the earth." (Rig Vedas) "An aerial chariot, the Pushpaka, conveys many people to the capital of Ayodhya. The sky is full of stupendous flying-machines, dark as night,but picked out by lights with a yellowish glare." (Mahavira)

"Bhima flew with his Vimana on an enormous ray which was as brilliant as the sun and made a noise like the thunder of a storm." (Ramayana)

"He traveled in that way through the various planets, as the air passes uncontrolled in every direction. Coursing through the air in that great and splendid aerial mansion, which could fly at his will, he surpassed even the demigods." (Shrimad Bhagavatam)

According to the Rig-Veda, an ancient king of India named Salva, acquired a flying machine from Maya Danava, who lived in Taltala, another planetary system. This and many other parts of the Sanskrit texts indicate that extraterrestrial life was a common knowledge at that time.

One might argue that the references to flying machines and beings from other planets are just a symbolic way to depict the Hindu gods, but the fact that five thousand years ago the Indian civilization already knew about different planetary systems, admitted life in other planets, could envision air machines powered by engines and pulses, is intriguing enough. It's important to remember that only fairly recently did the western world admit that the earth isn't the centre of the universe and even today some people find it impossible to imagine life in other planets.

Vedas are called Apaurusheya meaning ‘NOT of human origin', and only the contents of which were directly revealed to man.

If it is not of human origin, then who wrote it? God? Well, it is said that the vedas came out directly from the mouth of Brahma, and Brahma as we know represents the physical universe . And that Brahma got it from Vishnu, who represents the eternal multiverse that exists beyond our local temporary universe Brahma (which was a product of Bigbang). So? what does it really mean?

The very meaning of the word "veda" is knowledge, complete knowledge. The root word is "vid" which means ‘to know' or ‘knowledge' in Sanskrit.

It refers to the universal knowledge which is timeless and eternal. It is like saying quantum mechanics or relativity is Apaurusheya, and we can certainly say that because it is the ever existing law of nature, humans only discovered it, and it existed even before we discovered it. So are the vedas which are encyclopedia of ancient knowledge which was compiled together by Vyasa. Vyasa is NOT the original author of vedas, he only collected and compiled it. Just like the way today anybody can collect and compile all the knowledge we humans have in different fields of science like physics, chemistry, biology etc.

So when we say that vedic texts are apaurusheya meaning not of human origin, all it means is that they are scientific laws, the laws of the universe. Which is why we also see in the vedas references to various authors (both male and female) who wrote different parts of the vedas. There are also numerous references of female authors (about 27 of them) like Ghosha, Maitreyi, Gargi, Lopamudra etc who authored many of the vedic hymns. Yet the vedic texts are called Apaurusheya i.e being eternal without any author.

If ancient India was as modern as excavations show, many argue that it doesn't seem absurd that these people had flying machines that reached other planets and kept contact with inhabitants of other solar systems. According to the Ramayana, the Rama empire would have happened fifteen-thousand years ago, at the same time that Atlantis would have existed. Both civilizations share a similar story, that of the advanced territory that were visited by the gods, but vanished all of sudden. Would the same cataclysm that made Atlantis disappear under the waters, be responsible for the end of India's high-tech society? The answer is all over the ancient Sanskrit texts, in between the lines.

Mt. Kailash, at 6714 m also known as Tise, Kailasa & Kang Rinpoche(Jewel of the Snows), has since time immemorial been celebrated in many Eastern cosmologies as Mt. Meru, the axis mundi. And as the center of the physical & metaphysical universe, Mt. Meru is sacred to the Buddhist, Jains, the Hindus & the Bonpos. For the Hindus, the mountain represents the seat of Lord Shiva; for the Buddhists, a terrestrial projection of the cosmic mandala of Dhyani-Buddhas & Boddhisatvas….The Wheel of Life; for the Bonpos, Kailash was the sacred nine storey Swastika Mountain, upon which the Bonpo founder Sherab alighted from heaven.

The Buddha preached the teachings of the Kalacakra to an assembly of holy men in southern India. Afterwards, the teachings remained hidden for 1,000 years until an Indian yogi-scholar went in search of Shambhala and was initiated into the teachings by a holy man he met along the way. The Kalacakra then remained in India until it made its way to Tibet in 1026. Since then the concept of Shambhala has been widely known in Tibet, and Tibetans have been studying the Kalacakra for the least 900 years, learning its science, practicing its meditation, and using its system of astrology to guide their lives. As one Tibetan lama put it, how could Shambhala be the source of something, which has affected so many areas of Tibetan life for so long and yet not exist?

Tibetan religious texts describe the physical makeup of the hidden land in detail. It is thought to look like and eight-petaled lotus blossom because it is made up of eight regions, each surrounded by a ring of mountains. In the center of the innermost ring lies Kalapa, the capital, and the king palace, which is composed of gold, diamonds, coral, and precious gems. The capital is surrounded by mountains made of ice, which shine with a crystalline light. The technology of Shambhala is supposed to be highly advanced. The palace contains special skylights made of lenses which serve as high-powered telescopes to study extraterrestrial life, and for hundreds of years Shambhala?s inhabitants have been using aircraft and cars that shuttle through a network of underground tunnels. On the way to enlightenment, Shambhalans acquire such powers clairvoyance, the ability to move at great speeds, and the ability to materialize and disappear at will.

There are many other legends in the world that abound today about the extraterrestrial visitations and legends are collective memory of things and incidents that have happened in the past like the legends of the great flood. So if there is a legend which is in essence common to many populations and races then we can safely say that such an incident did happen in very distant past. Throughout the history of the Near East it was known that the Sumerians claimed their civilization really began to flower when they made contact with a sky creature who flew down into the sea in a ship. Note this creature was not described as a god, and not as an angel, just as another real living creature. Like our amphibians this creature needed to live near and in water. In fact when portrayed in Near East sculpture he is carved half man-half fish. Apparently, it met repeatedly with a Sumerian native on a beach and gave him many of its secrets, among them the gift of the alphabet/writing. This legend, or story, was passed down through generations and numerous tribes including the Babylonians.

The Reg-Veda, considered to be the holiest of Hindu texts, speaks of a god who rode in a fast flying "car." His "car" had a gleaming, flashing quality, and produced a roaring sound that shook the Earth as it flew through the sky.

Ancient myths and legends also speak of visitors who came from the stars. Persian myths tell of "giants and demons" that corrupted the earth, and "allied themselves with women."

Pre-Incan Tribes record visits by giant men who sported beards and came from the constellation Taurus.

Aztec and Toltec legends referred to a god by the name of Quetzacoatl, also known as the "sky god." He was said to be fair complexioned and bearded, unlike the dark-skinned tribesmen.

The legends of the Sioux and Crow tribes of North America tell of their blood relationship to a group of Extraterrestrials, referred to as the "Star Nations," who visited Earth from the Pleiades star cluster, long ago. The argument could be made that religious, mythical, and legendary accounts of history are purely subjective and anecdotal. However, science and truth would not be served by dismissing out of hand, all of the descriptive similarities of these beings and their flying machines, descriptions that reach across cultures, geography, and time.

High in the mountains of BayanKara-Ula, on the boarders of China and Tibet - a team of archeologists were conducting a very detailed routine survey of a series of interlinked caves. Their interests had been excited by the discovery of lines of neatly arranged graves which contained the skeletons of what must have been a strange race of human beings; strange because they had unnaturally spindly bodies and large, over-developed heads.

At first, it had been thought that the caves had been the home of a hitherto unkown species of ape. But as the leader of the team - the Chinese archeologist, Professor Chi Pu Tei - pointed out, "Who ever heard of apes burying each other?" It was while studying the skeletons that one of the team stumbled on a large, round stone disk, half buried in the dust on the floor of the cave. The team gathered round the discovery, turning it this way and that. It looked, absurdly, like a kind of 'Stone Age Gramophone record'. There was a hole in the center and a fine, spiral groove radiated to the rim. Closer inspection, however, showed that the groove was, in fact, a continous spiralling line of closely written characters. The object was a 'record' ... in more ways then one. Only nobody at the time - the year was 1938 - possessed the key to its incredible message.

The disc was labeled and filed away among other finds in the area. Even those who knew of its existence knew nothing of its meaning. Many experts tried to translate the hieroglyphs in the 20 years the disc languished in Peking. They all failed. It was not until another professor -Dr. Tsum Um Nui - broke the code and started to decipher the 'speaking grooves' that the extraordinary implications of the disc were realized. Realized, that is, only by only a select few. The outside world remained in ignorance. For the professor's conclusions on the neaning of the disc were so shattering that they were offically suppressed. The Peking Academy of Pre-History forbade him to publish his findings. Two years later, in 1965, the professor and four of his colleagues were finally given permission to reveal their theory. It appeared under the long-winded but intriguing title, "The Grooved Script concerning Space-ships which, as recorded on the Discs, landed on Earth 12,000 years ago".

The 'records' - 716 of the grooved discs were later uncovered in the same caves - told an astonishing story of a 'space probe' by the inhabitants of another planet which came to grief in the Bayan-Kara-Ula mountain range. The strange, spiral script told how the peaceful intentions of the 'aliens' had been misunderstood and how many of them were hunted down and killed by members of the Ham tribe, who lived in the neighboring caves. According to Tsum Um Nui, one of the lines of the hieroglyphs read, "The Dropas came down from the clouds in their aircraft. Our men, women and children hid in the caves ten times before sunrise. When at last they understood the sign language of the Dropas, they realized that the newcomers had peaceful intentions... Another section expressed 'regret' by the Ham tribe that the aliens' spaceship had crash-landed in such a remote and inaccessible mountains and that there had been no way to building a new one to enable Dropas to return to their own planet.

In the years since the discovery of the first disc, archeologists and anthropologists had learned more about the isolated Bayan-Kara-Ula area. And much of the information seemed to corroborate the bizarre story recorded on the discs.

Legend still preserved in the area spoke of small, gaunt, yellow faced men who 'came from the clouds, long, long ago'. The men had huge, bulging heads and puny bodies and were so ugly and repellent that they were hounded down by local tribesmen on horseback. Strangely, the description of the 'invaders' tallied with the skeletons orginally discovered in the caves by Professor Chi Pu Tei. On the walls of the caves themselves archeologists had uncovered crude pictures of the rising Sun, the Moon, unidentifiable stars and the Earth... all joined together by lines of pea-sized dots. Along with the discs, the cave drawings had been dated around 12,000 years old. The cave area was still inhabited by two semi-troglodyte tribes known as the Hams and the Dropas, themselves extremely odd in appearance. The frail and stunted tribesmen averaged only about five feet in height and were neither typically Chinese nor Tibetan. "Their racial ack-ground," said one expert, "is a mystery."But even with the publications of Professor Tsum Um Nui's amazing translation, the story of the 'space discs' was not over. Russian scientists asked to see the discs and several were sent to Moscow for examination. They were scraped free of rock particles which had stuck to them and then put through chemical analysis. To the suprise of the scientists, they we found to contain large amounts of cobalt and other metallic substances. That was not all. When placed on a special turntable - according to Dr. Vyatcheslav Saizev, who described the experiments in the Soviet magazine Sputnik - they vibrated or 'hummed' in an unusual rhythm as though an electic charge was passing through them. Or as one scientist suggested, "as if they formed some part of an electrical circuit." At some time, they had clearly been exposed to extraordinarily high votages.

Did the discs actually record an abortive space mission by alien astronauts 12,000 years ago? Nearly all the leading 'space speculators' - theorists like Erich von Daniken and Peter Kolosimo -

Greek 'Mythology' is all that's left of the ancient Greek religion. About 1200 b.c.e., the residents of what we would call, Greece and Asia Minor shared a common, undisputed view in a group of deities from the heavens that came to be known as The Olympians.

Von Daniken's (Odyssey of the Gods) exhausting research suggests the Greek 'gods' were in fact extraterrestrial beings who arrived on Earth thousands of years ago. Archaeological evidence and the writings of the ancients, including Aristotle, prove these gods interbred with humans, performed genetic experiments, and bred 'mythical' creatures, such as centaurs and Cyclops. Greek gods were a way of explaining the unexplainable in a person's life. These gods, described as the perfect humans. According to Greek mythology, there once was a time when great events had occurred and the gods had involved themselves in human affairs. These gods were described as the "perfect humans"

Even today we are visited by the extraterrestrial and the famous Roswell incident is not a distant past it is fairly recent. When I sit in my pensive mood as the poet did long time ago when he penned down the poem "The daffodils" I too hit upon my inward eye to ask me myself a question and that is where we would have been if we had to evolve with the intelligence that we had in the Homo erectus? Is my physical self a part of this earth and my conscious and intelligence state is that of some other planet? I was so happy with the achievements that I had done so far only to realize that had we not got the gift from our well wishers who are there somewhere deep in the space these achievements would not have been possible. OR did the gift of INTELLIGENCE come out of sheer carnal pleasures of some race deep in the space?? WHERE DID WE COME FROM? Drawing upon a wealth of research into archeology, genetics, reincarnation memories, out-of-body experiences, parapsychology, cross cultural cosmology, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Cremo provides a refreshing perspective on human origins according to the ancient philosophy of India. In their controversial bestseller Forbidden Archeology, Michael A. Cremo and Richard L. Thompson documented evidence showing that humans have existed on earth for hundreds of millions of years. Such anomalous evidence, contradicting Darwinian evolution, catalyzed a global inquiry: If we did not evolve from apes then where did we come from? Human Devolution is Michael A. Cremo's definitive answer to that question: We did not evolve up from matter; instead we devolved, or came down, from the real of pure consciousness, spirit. Basing his response on modern science and the world's great wisdom traditions, including the Vedic philosophy of ancient India, Cremo proposes that before we ask the question, Where did human beings come from? we should first contemplate, What is a human being?

Amlan Roychowdhury
Author has a masters degree in Anthropology from Kolkata University

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com

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