HONDA ANF 125 Innova

Technical Specifications
HONDA ANF 125 Innova (2004)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 4-stroke, single cylinder, SOHC
53.0 x 58.0 mm
124.9 cc
4 valves per cylinder
9.3:1
8.9 Hp @ 7500 rpm
9 Nm @ 5000 rpm
18mm Carburetor
Centrifugal clutch semi-automatic with 4 gears
Chain
Automatic
Capacitor Discharge (CDI) with electronic advance
Electric & kick starter





Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)

Low-deck mono-backbone; rectangular-section steel tube

1890 mm
726 mm
1083 mm
1240 mm
767 mm
145 mm
99 kg
3.7 litres

26mm Telescopic fork, 80.5mm axle travel
Dual damper unit swingarm, 81.6mm axle travel
70/100-17
80/90-17
220mm hydraulic disc with dual-piston calliper
110mm leading/trailing drum

Image: http://www.motorera.com

Legenda Danau Lau Kawar

(Cerita Rakyat Daerah Sumatera Utara)

Danau Lau Kawar terletak di Desa Kuta Gugung, Kecamatan Simpang Empat, Kabupaten Karo, Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Danau ini terkenal akan airnya yang jernih dan tenang serta pemandangan alamnya yang indah. Namun, dibalik pesona keindahan tersebut tersimpan suatu kisah luar biasa mengenai asal usul terjadinya danau yang oleh sebagian masyarakat di sekitarnya diyakini kebenarannya. Kisahnya adalah sebagai berikut.

Alkisah, pada zaman dahulu kala Lau Kawar bukanlah sebuah danau seperti sekarang ini, melainkan sebuah desa yang bernama Kawar. Masyarakatnya hidup dari hasil bercocok tanam di ladang yang selalu subur walau tidak memakai pupuk atau obat-obatan lainnya. Suatu waktu, hasil panen mereka meningkat hingga dua kali lipat. Akibatnya, lumbung-lumbung mereka pun menjadi penuh. Bahkan, beberapa diantaranya ada yang harus menaruh hasil panennya di dalam rumah karena sudah tidak muat lagi di lumbung.

Atas keberhasilan panen itu, mereka lalu bergotong-royong mengadakan pesta adat sebagai ungkapan rasa syukur kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Pada hari pelaksanaan, Desa Kawar tampak ramai dan semarak. Para penduduk mengenakan pakaian yang berwarna-warni serta perhiasan yang indah. Dalam pesta adat itu warga Desa Kawar tampak bergembira ria kecuali seorang perempuan tua yang ditinggal seorang diri di dalam rumahnya. Ia tidak mengikuti pesta karena menderita lumpuh dan tidak dapat berjalan lagi. Sementara anak, menantu, dan para cucunya asyik sibuk mengikuti pesta dan tidak mempedulikannya lagi.

Sambil terbaring di atas pembaringannya, si nenek tua itu pun berkata, “Ya, Tuhan! Aku ingin sekali menghadiri pesta itu. Tapi apa dayaku. Jangankan berjalan, berdiripun aku sudah tidak sanggup lagi.”

Dalam keadaan demikian, ia hanya bisa membayangkan betapa meriahnya suasana pesta itu. Saat mendengar secara sayup-sayup suara gendang guro-guro didendangkan, teringatlah ia ketika masih remaja dan ikut menari berpasangan dengan para pemuda desa yang gagah dan tanpan. Namun, semuanya hanya tinggal kenangan saja. Kini, tinggallah siksaan dan penderitaan yang dialami di usia senjanya. Ia menderita seorang diri dalam kesepian. Tak seorang pun yang mempedulikannya.

Ketika tiba saatnya makan siang, seluruh warga yang tengah berpesta tersebut segera berkumpul di balai desa untuk menyatap berbagai macam makanan yang telah disiapkan. Saat mereka makan sesekali terdengar suara tawa karena di antara mereka ada saja yang membuat lelucon. Rasa gembira yang berlebihan membuat mereka lupa bahwa ada seorang diantara mereka yang tidak dapat mengikuti pesta karena keterbatasan fisiknya.

Orang itu adalah si nenek yang sudah sejak tadi merasa lapar. Ia sangat mengharapkan anak atau menantunya ingat dan segera mengantarkan makanan untuknya. Namun, setelah ditunggu-tunggu, tak ada seorang pun yang datang. Akhirnya, dengan sisa-sisa tenaga yang ada, ia mencoba merangkat ke dapur untuk mencari makanan. Tetapi setelah sampai di dapur ia tidak menemukan sedikitpun makanan karena anak-anak perempuannya sengaja tidak memasak pada hari itu.

Sambil merangkak kembali menuju pembaringannya si nenek meratap, “Ya Tuhan! Anak-cucuku benar-benar telah tega membiarkan aku menderita begini. Di sana mereka makan sampai kenyang, sedang aku dibiarkan kelaparan. Sungguh kejam mereka!”

Di tempat lain, saat pesta makan telah usai anak si nenek rupanya baru ingat kalau ibunya belum makan. Ia kemudian menghampiri isterinya dan berkata, “Isteriku! Apakah kamu sudah mengantarkan makanan untuk ibu?”

“Belum,” jawab sang isteri singkat.

“Kalau begitu, tolong bungkuskan makanan lalu suruh anak kita menghantarkannya!” perintah sang suami.

“Baiklah,” jawab sang isteri sambil berjalan ke arah makanan sisa pesta lalu membungkus beberapa diantaranya dan memberikan pada anaknya untuk di bawa pulang.

Sesampainya di rumah, si anak segera menyerahkan bungkusan makanan itu pada neneknya lalu berlari kembali ke tempat pesta. Alangkah senangnya hati sang nenek. Pada saat lapar yang teramat sangat, tiba-tiba saja ada yang membawakan makanan. Dengan perasaan gembira ia lalu membuka bungkusan itu. Namun betapa kecewanya ia ketika melihat bahwa isi bungkusan hanyalah makanan sisa yang sudah tidak utuh lagi.

“Ya Tuhan! Apakah mereka sudah menganggapku seperti binatang,” gumam sang nenek dengan perasaan kesal.

Sebenarnya bungkusan itu berisi daging panggang yang masih hangat dan utuh. Namun, di tengah perjalanan si cucu telah memakannya sehingga yang tersisa sebagian besar hanyalah tulangnya saja.

Si nenek yang tidak mengetahui kejadian yang sebenarnya mengira anak dan menantunya telah tega melakukan hal itu. Ia merasa sangat terhina dan segera berdoa kepada Tuhan agar anak dan menantunya diberikan ganjaran yang setimpal.

Singkat cerita, setelah selesai mengucapkan doa secara tiba-tiba terjadi sebuah gempa bumi yang sangat dahsyat. Selanjutnya, langit menjadi mendung disertai guntur menggelegar dan tak lama kemudian turunlah hujan dengan lebatnya. Dalam sekejap mata, Desa Kawar yang subur dan makmur itu tiba-tiba tenggelam beserta seluruh penduduknya dan berubah menjadi sebuah danau seperti sekarang ini.

Diceritakan kembali oleh gufron

Manisan Buah Aro

Bahan
½ kg buah aro (buah elu)
100 gram gula pasir
Vanili, kapur sirih

Cara membuat
Buah aro ditusuk-tusuk lalu direndam air kapur ± 5 jam, lalu dicuci bersih-bersih dan ditiriskan. Gula dimasak dengan dua gelas air sampai mendidih, lalu didinginkan. Setelah dingin masukkan buah aro, ditiriskan lagi. Dimasak lagi sampai airnya jelang kering. Boleh juga dijemur dipanas matahari sampai kering.

Honda CRF230L

Technical Specifications
Honda CRF230L (2008)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 4-stroke, single cylinder, OHC
65.5 x 66.2 mm
223 cc
4 valves per cylinder
9.0:1
23.3 kW @ 10500 rpm
23.5 Nm @ 8500 rpm

6-speed
O-ring sealed chain
Wet type multi-plated coil spring
CDI battery
Electric starter





Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)



mm
mm
mm
1340 mm
805 mm
245 mm
161 kg
8.7 litres

Telescopic forks
Swingarm Pro-Link
2.75-21045P
120/80-18M/C 62P
Hydraulic disc
Hydraulic disc

Image: http://picsdigger.com

Palm Pixi Plus

Specifications
Palm Pixi Plus
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
111 x 54.9 x 10.9 mm
107.7 gram
TFT capacitive touchscreen, 256K colors
320 x 400 pixels, 2.63 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries, Photocall
Practically unlimited
8 GB storage

Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, 7.2Mbps; HSUPA, 5.76Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g
v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU

Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Palm webOS
Qualcomm MSM7627 600 MHz processor, dedicated
graphics accelerator
SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0 / HTML

A-GPS support, AT&T Navigator
Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels, LED flash
Yes
Black
MIDP 2.0
- QWERTY keyboard
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto rotate
- Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
- Speakerphone
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- Geo-tagging
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264/H.263 player
- Document viewer
- Voice memo/dial
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1150 mAh
Up to 350 h
Up to 5 h 30 min

Image: http://www.unlimit-tech.com

Vodafone Indie

Specifications
Vodafone Indie
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
88.5 x 52 x 13.5 mm
80 gram
TFT touchscreen, 65K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.4 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 contacts, Photocall
40 dialed, 40 received, 40 missed calls

microSD (TransFlash) up to 2GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps




Yes

Yes
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS
Vibration; Polyphonic, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS support
Yes
1.3 MP, 1280 x 1024 pixels
Yes
Red, rosa
MIDP 2.0
- Speakerphone
- MP3/MP4 player
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion
Up to 195 h
Up to 3 h

Image: http://saythelee.blogspot.com

Vodafone 360 M1

Specifications
Vodafone 360 M1
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
112 x 55.4 x 13.4 mm
111 gram
TFT touchscreen, 16M colors
240 x 400 pixels, 3.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries
20 dialed, 20 received, 20 missed calls
1 GB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 32GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, 3.6 Mbps

v2.0 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Linux-based LiMo R2.0.1
ARM Cortex A8 600 MHz, PowerVR SGX graphics
SMS, MMS
Vibration; Polyphonic, MP3 ringtones
HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS support
Yes
3.15 MP, 2048 x 1536 pixels
VGA@15fps
Black, white, red
MIDP 2.0
- Vodafone 360 3D UI applications
- Speakerphone
- 3.5mm audio jack
- MP3, AAC, AAC+, AAC+(e), WMA, AMR music player
- MPEG4 / H.263/ H.264, DivX, XViD, WMV player
- Voice memo/dial
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1500 mAh
Up to
Up to

Image: http://www.cellphonesupersale.com

Samsung T669 Gravity T

Specifications
Samsung T669 Gravity T
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 1700 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
110 x 56.6 x 15 mm
120 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
90 received, dialed and missed calls
50 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java

184 MHz processor
SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM, RSS
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML

A-GPS only; Google Maps
Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
QCIF@15fps
Various
MIDP 2.0
- QWERTY keyboard
- Accelerometer sensor
- Turn-to-mute
- Speakerphone
- Social networking integration
- T-Mobile Social Buzz
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.264 player
- Document viewer
- Voice memo/dial
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1000 mAh
Up to 400 h
Up to 6 h

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

Samsung Smiley

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
UMTS 1700 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
99.6 x 59.4 x 15 mm
112.8 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
90 received, dialed and missed calls
50 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
384 kbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java

184 MHz processor
SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM, RSS
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML

A-GPS only; Google Maps
Yes
1.3 MP, 1280 x 1024 pixels
QCIF@15fps
Various
MIDP 2.0
- QWERTY keyboard
- Speakerphone
- Social networking integration
- T-Mobile Social Buzz
- MP4/H.263/H.264 player
- MP3/eAAC+/WAV player
- Voice memo/dial
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1000 mAh
Up to 300 h
Up to 5 h 30 min

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

Raja Parakeet

(Cerita rakyat Aceh)

Alkisah, ada seekor raja burung parakeet yang hidup beserta rakyatnya di sebuah hutan di daerah pedalaman Aceh. Kehidupan sehari-hari mereka sebelumnya berlangsung aman, tenteram, dan damai hingga suatu hari datangah seorang pemburu yang hendak menangkap mereka untuk dijual dagingnya. Oleh karena ingin mendapatkan burung dalam jumlah banyak, maka sang pemburu menaruh perekat di sekitar sangkar-sangkar milik burung-burung parakeet tersebut.

Hal ini tentu saja membuat para burung menjadi panik. Sayap dan badan mereka lengket dengan sarang yang telah diberi perekat oleh sang pemburu. Untuk meredakan kepanikan, Sang Raja Parakeet berkata, “Saudara-saudaraku, tenanglah. Ini akibat dari perekat yang dibuat oleh pemburu. Nanti kalau ia datang hendak menangkap kalian, berpura-puralah mati. Nah, kalau mendapati bahwa kita telah mati, maka ia akan langsung membuang kita. Tunggulah sampai hitungan ke seratus, sebelum kita bersama-sama terbang kembali.”

Keesokan harinya, datanglah pemburu tersebut. Setelah melepaskan perekat dan melihat bahwa burung-burung yang tertangkap ternyata seluruhnya tidak bergerak, ia menjadi sangat kecewa. Ia mengira mereka telah mati karena terlalu lama melekat di sarang. Pemburu itu pun kemudian beranjak pergi. Namun, baru beberapa langkah meninggalkan sarang, ia terpeleset dan terjatuh di tanah. Hal ini membuat burung-burung menjadi terkejut dan beterbangan hendak menyelamatkan diri. Hanya Raja Parakeet saja yang belum sepenuhnya terlepas dari perekat yang tidak dapat terbang. Ia lalu ditangkap.

Singkat cerita, Raja Parakeet bernegosiasi dengan Sang Pemburu agar ia tidak dibunuh untuk dijual dagingnya. Sebagai imbalannya ia akan selalu menghibur si pemburu dengan cara bernyanyi. Dan, karena suara si Raja Parakeet ternyata sangat merdu, maka Sang Pemburu menjual suaranya dengan cara mengamen ke tempat-tempat keramaian.

Kabar mengenai kemerduan suara Raja Parakeet akhirnya terdengar pula hingga ke istana raja Aceh. Ia lalu memanggil sang pemburu bersama burungnya ke istananya untuk menghiburnya. Setelah Raja mendengar suara burung parakeet yang memang sangat merdu itu, ia langsung menawarkan pada sang pemburu agar menukarnya dengan harta benda yang sangat banyak. Sang pemburu pun tertarik dan bersedia menukarnya.

Mulai saat itu Raja Parakeet tinggal di istana raja Aceh. Ia ditempatkan di dalam sebuah sangkar besar yang terbuat dari emas. Di dalam sangkar tersebut selalu saja disediakan makanan yang lezat-lezat. Namun Raja Parakeet tidak merasa bahagia. Ia selalu saja rindu akan rumah dan kawan-kawannya yang ada di dalam hutan.

Agar dapat bebas dan berkumpul kembali bersama teman-temannya, Raja Parakeet menjalankan siasat yang sama seperti ketika sang pemburu berhasil menangkapnya, yaitu berpura-pura mati. Siasat itu ternyata berhasil. Sang raja Aceh yang mengira burungnya telah mati segera memerintahkan para pengawalnya untuk mengadakan penguburan. Dan, pada saat pengawal mengeluarkan “bangkainya” dari dalam sangkar, Sang Raja Parakeet segera terbang keluar dari istana menuju ke tengah hutan untuk berkumpul kembali bersama teman-temannya.

Sumber:
Diadaptasi secara bebas dari Ny. S.D.B. Aman, “How the Parakeet King Regained his Freedom”, dalam Folk Tales from Indonesia. Jakarta: Djambatan. 1976, hal. 5-9 dan http://www.seasite.niu.edu

Samsung C3300K Champ

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
96.3 x 53.8 x 13 mm
80 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.4 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 contacts, Photocall
Yes
30 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 8GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps


v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS

Yes
1.3 MP, 1280 x 1024 pixels
QCIF@15fps
Deep black, espresso brown, sweet pink, chic white
MIDP 2.0
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- TouchWiz Lite UI
- Speakerphone
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- Social networking integration
- MP3/WMA/eAAC+ player
- MP4/H.263 player
- Voice memo/dial
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1000 mAh
Up to 666 h
Up to 12 h

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

Nokia 1800

Specifications
Nokia 1800
Network2G
3G
GSM 900 / 1800
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
107 x 45 x 15.3 mm
78.5 gram
TFT, 65K colors
128 x 160 pixels, 1.8 inches (~114 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
500 entries
20 dialed, 20 received, 20 missed calls

DataGPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB







FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS
Vibration; MP3 ringtones

FM radio

Yes


Silver grey, black, orchid red, ash blue

- Speakerphone
- Exchangeable color covers
- Flashlight
- Organizer
- Voice memo
- Predictive text input
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 800 mAh (BL-5CB)
Up to 528 h
Up to 8 h 30 min

Image: http://i.afterdawn.com/storage/pictures/nokia_1800.jpg

Honda VTR250

Technical Specifications
Honda VTR250 (2010)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type

Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Liquid-cooled, 4-stroke, DOHC, V-twin
60.0 x 44.2 mm
250 cc
4 valves per cylinder
11.0:1
23.3 kW @ 10500 rpm
23.5 Nm @ 8500 rpm
PGM-FI electronic fuel injection
5-speed
O-ring sealed chain
Wet multiple plate coil springs
Computer-controlled fully transistorised with electronic
advance
Electric starter





Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)

Brake (rear)



2070 mm
725 mm
1055 mm
1405 mm
775 mm
155 mm
161 kg
12.4 litres

41 mm telescopic forks
Swingarm
110/70 17M/C (54H)
140/70 17M/C (66H)
296mm single hydraulic disc with dual piston caliper and
resin mould pads
220mm hydraulic disc with single-piston caliper and resin
mould pads

Image: http://www.motorcyclespecs.co.za

Honda SH150i

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Liquid-cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, single cylinder
58.0 x 57.8mm
153 cc
2 valves per cylinder
11.0:1
11.6 kW @ 8500 rpm
14 Nm @ 7000 rpm

Continuously variable (V-Matic)
V-belt
Automatic; centrifugal
Digital transistorised with electronic advance
Electric starter





Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)

Brake (rear)



2020 mm
700 mm
1140 mm
1335 mm
790 mm
140 mm
kg
7.5 litres

33mm telescopic fork, 100mm axle travel
Dual-damper unit swingarm, 95mm axle travel
110/70 16 (52P)
130/70 16 (61P)
220 x 4mm hydraulic disc with dual-piston calliper,
drilled rotor and sintered metal pads
130mm leading/trailing drum

Image: http://mycar.vn

Honda Odyssey

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Emission
Transmission

Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, Inline 4 cylinder, DOHC, i-VTEC
87.0 x 99.0 mm
2354 cc
10.5:1
132 kW @ 6500 rpm
218 Nm @ 4500 rpm
Euro 4
5 speed with Grade Logic Control and Shift Hold
(Automatic)

-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Stabiliser bars
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior














Exterior


Monocoque

4810 mm
1800 mm
1545 mm
5.4 m
2830 mm
1560 mm
1560 mm
149 mm
1645 kg
2270 kg
Electric power steering rack and pinion
60 litres
7 persons
Independent double wishbone
Coil spring with stabilise
Front & rear
215/60 R16 95H
215/60 R16 95H
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Ashtray
- Cigarette lighter
- Accessory power outlet (12V)
- Air conditioning (Climate control with rear ventilation)
- Comprehensive interior illumination
- Cruise control
- Central locking
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Driver's footrest
- Dust and pollen filter
- Foldable centre table
- Tachometer
- Seat back pocket (Driver and front passenger)
- Seatbelt height adjuster
- Vanity mirror (Driver and front passenger)
- Body coloured bumpers
- Door handles (chrome)
- Exhaust (dual)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Mirror integrated indicators
- Rear window demister

Image: http://www.webwombat.com.au

Motorola FlipOut

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 900 / 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
67 x 67 x 17 mm
120 gram
TFT capacitive touchscreen, 256K colors
320 x 240 pixels, 2.8 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Practically unlimited
150 MB storage, 512 MB RAM, 512 MB ROM
microSD (TransFlash) up to 32GB, 2GB included
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 12 (4+1/3+2/2+3/1+4 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 12
HSDPA 7.2 Mbps; HSUPA 3.2 Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n
v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Android OS, v2.1 (Eclair)
TI OMAP3410 600MHz processor
SMS, AMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS
A-GPS support
Yes
3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels
352 x 288 @ 26-30 fps
White, fairway green, poppy red, raspberry crush
Via third party application
- QWERTY keyboard
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
- Multi-touch input method
- MOTOBLUR UI v1.5 with Live Widgets
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- Geo-tagging, face detection
- Digital compass
- Social networking integration with live updates
- Google Maps with Street View
- MP3/eAAC+/WAV player
- MP4/WMV/H.264/H.263 player
- Facebook, MySpace, Twitter apps
- Document viewer
- Voice memo/dial
- Organizer
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1170 mAh
Up to 365 h (2G)/380 h (3G)
Up to 6 h (2G)/4 h 30 min (3G)

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

Sony Ericsson J105 Naite

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
108 x 47 x 12.6 mm
84 gram
TFT, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 contacts, Photo call
30 received, dialed and missed calls
100 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB, 2GB included
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, 3.6 Mbps

v2.0 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS(threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Email, RSS
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/ HTML (NetFront)
Stereo FM radio with RDS

Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
QVGA@15fps
Vapour silver, ginger red
Yes, MIDP 2.0
- Wallpapers, screensavers
- Speakerphone
- MP3/eAAC+/WMA player
- MP4/WMV/H.263 player
- TrackID
- E-manual
- Eco friendly materials
- Ecomate, CO2 Calculator
- Organizer
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Po 950 mAh (BST-33)
Up to 600 h (2G)/583 h (3G)
Up to 13 h 45 min (2G)/4 h 30 min (3G)

Image: http://www.paketelor.com

Yamaha CygnusX (2006)

Technical Specifications
Yamaha CygnusX (2006)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Exhaust
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 4-stroke, single cylinder
40.3 x 39.0 mm (1.6 x 1.5 inches)
124.8 cc
2 valves per cylinder
12.0:1

9.60 Nm (1.0 kgf-m or 7.1 ft.lbs) @ 7500 rpm
Carburettor
V-matic
Belt
Manual, Multiplate Wet Clutch
Electronic CDI
Kick & electric starter
Wet sump




Dimensions
Frame type
Castor
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)



1855 mm (73.0 inches)
685 mm (27.0 inches)
1110 mm (43.7 inches)
1290 mm (50.8 inches)
770 mm (30.3 inches)
110 mm (4.3 inches)
114 kg
7 litres

Telescopic, coil spring, oil damped
Swinging arm, coil spring, oil damped, spring pre-load
2,75 - 18 42L
100/90 - 18 M/C - 56P
Single disc 220 mm with 2-piston calipers
Expanding brake (drum brake) 150 mm

Image: http://wy863.com/

Sony Ericsson Yendo

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 900 / 1800
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
93.5 x 52 x 15.5 mm
81 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.6 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
2000 entries, Photocall
Yes
5 MB
microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps


v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java

156 MHz processor
SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS

Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
Yes, with face detection continious tracking
Black, green, orange, pink, purple, red, silver, blue
Yes, MIDP 2.0
- 3.5 mm audio jack
- Google search
- TrackID music recognition
- MP4/H.263 player
- Walkman player
- Shake control
- SensMe
- Facebook, Twitter apps
- Organizer
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Po
Up to 312 h
Up to 3 h 30 min

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

Apple iPhone 4

Specifications
Apple iPhone 4
Network2G
3G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1900 / 2100
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
115.2 x 58.6 x 9.3 mm
137 gram
LED-backlit IPS TFT, capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
640 x 960 pixels, 3.5 inches (~330 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Yes, Photocall
Yes
8/16/32 GB storage, 512 MB RAM
DataGPRS
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps
Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, 7.2 Mbps; HSUPA, 5.76 Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, Wi-Fi hotspot
v2.1 with A2DP

microUSB v2.0
FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
iPhone OS 4, upgradable to iOS 5.1
1 GHz Cortex-A8, PowerVR SGX535, Apple A4
iMessage, SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Email
Vibration, propriety ringtones
HTML (Safari)

A-GPS support
Yes
5 MP, 2592 x 1944 pixels, autofocus, LED flash
720p@30fps, LED video light, geo-tagging
Black, white

- Loudspeaker
- 3.5mm jack
- Multitouch
- Corning Gorilla Glass, oleophobic coating protection
- Touch focus, geo-tagging, HDR
- VGA, 480p@30fps, videocalling over Wi-Fi only
- Accelerometer, gyro, proximity, compass sensors
- MicroSIM card support only
- Scratch-resistant glass back panel
- Active noise cancellation with dedicated mic
- TV-out
- iCloud cloud service
- Twitter integration
- Google Maps
- Audio/video player and editor
- Image editor
- Voice command/dial
- Clock
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Po 1420mAh
Up to 300 h (2G)/300 h (3G)
Up to 14 h (2G)/7 h (3G)

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com/apple_iphone_4-pictures-3275.php

Suzuki Smash Titan 115cc

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, single cylinder
51.0 x 55.2 mm
113 cc
1 valve per cylinder
9.5:1
8.4 ps @ 8000 rpm
8.9 Nm @ 5000 rpm
Carburettor, Mikuni VM 18SH
4-speed
Chain
Dry sentrifugal
DC-C.D.I
Electric & kick starter
SALCS (Suzuki Advanced)

NGK C6 HSA/ ND U 20 FS-U
12V-5Ah

Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)

Backbone

1930 mm
655 mm
1050 mm
1240 mm
755 mm
140 mm
100 kg
4.3 litres

Telescopic fork
Swingarm
70/90-17M/C 38P
80/90-17M/C 44P
Drum brake
Drum brake

Image: http://ninja250r.wordpress.com

Lomba Panjat Pisang (Cibiru Wetan, Jawa Barat)


Bagi bangsa Indonesia tanggal 17 Agustus merupakan hari yang istimewa. Pada hari itu, sekitar 65 tahun yang lalu para pendiri bangsa memproklamirkan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dan, mulai saat itu hingga sekarang setiap tanggal 17 Agustus seluruh rakyat Indonesia selalu merayakan hari kemerdekaannya.

Namun seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, perayaan tidak hanya diisi dengan upacara bendera, tabur bunga dan atau acara renungan di taman makam pahlawan saja. Perayaan kemerdekaan juga dilakukan dengan mengadakan tirakatan, pentas seni, dan permainan-permainan (perlombaan dan pertandingan) antarwarga di sebagian besar wilayah Indonesia.

Salah satu dari sekian banyak permainan rakyat untuk memeriahkan hari kemerdekaan itu adalah perlombaan panjat batang pisang yang rutin diadakan oleh warga masyarakat Desa Cibiru Wetan, Kecamatan Cileunyi, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat. Konon, perlombaan ini adalah perkembangan dari lomba panjat pinang yang sampai sekarang masih dimainkan oleh masyarakat di daerah lain. Strategi adaptasi untuk mensiasati semakin langka dan mahalnya pohon pinang membuat warga di daerah tersebut beralih menggunakan pohon pisang yang relatif masih banyak dijumpai.

Pemain
Permainan panjat batang pisang dapat dikategorikan sebagai permainan remaja dan dewasa yang umumnya dilakukan oleh laki-laki berusia 15--23 tahun. Jumlah pemainnya antara 6--8 orang dalam bentuk kelompok dengan anggota maksimal 2 orang. Selain pemain, lomba panjat pisang juga menggunakan wasit untuk mengawasi jalannya perlombaan dan menetapkan pemenang.

Tempat dan Peralatan Permainan
Perlombaan panjat batang pisang tidak membutuhkan tempat (lapangan) yang luas. Ia dapat dimainkan di mana saja, asalkan di atas tanah. Jadi, dapat di sawah yang telah selesai panen, di tanah lapang, atau di areal perladangan. Luas arena permainan panjat pisang ini hanya sepanjang 4--5 meter dan lebar sekitar 3--4 meter.

Peralatan yang digunakan diantaranya adalah: (1) tiga batang bambu yang relatif lurus dan sudah tua dengan panjang masing-masing sekitar 10 meter; (2) sebuah batang pohon pisang berdiameter sekitar 20--30 sentimeter yang daun dan kulit luarnya telah dikupas; (3) seutas tambang berdiameter sekitar 5 sentimeter dan panjang 5 meter; (4) oli bekas untuk melumuri batang pisang agar licin; (5) ember dan gayung untuk membasahi tubuh pemain agar tetap licin ketika memanjat; (6) tali rafia, bilah-bilah bambu tipis, paku, plastik; dan (7) hadiah-hadiah yang akan diperebutkan, seperti: uang, sandal jepit, air mineral, pakaian, makanan ringan, sepatu, sepeda dan lain sebagainya, bergantung dari dana yang dimiliki oleh panitia lomba.

Sedangkan cara membuatnya adalah sebagai berikut. Mula-mula tiga batang bambu yang relatif lurus itu didirikan dan diujungnya diikat menjadi satu sehingga membentuk segitiga sama kaki. Selanjutnya, pada bagian ujung bambu yang menyatu digantungkan batang pohon pisang yang sebelumnya telah dilumuri oli agar licin dan ujungnya dipasangi bilah-bilah bambu yang dibuat sedemikian rupa hingga berbentuk lingkaran. Lingkaran yang terbuat dari bilahan bambu itulah yang nantinya menjadi target para pemain karena digantungi berbagai macam hadiah dari panitia perlombaan. Selanjutnya, pada bagian bawah batang pohon pisang yang menggantung sekitar 20 sentimeter di atas tanah (seperti sansak tinju) dibuat lubang sedalam 30--40 sentimeter dan diberi air.

Aturan Permainan
Aturan dalam permainan ini tergolong mudah, yaitu setiap regu akan diberi waktu sekitar dua menit untuk dapat mencapai puncak batang pisang dan mengambil hadiahnya. Apabila suatu regu berhasil atau tidak berhasil mencapai puncak batang pisang, maka setelah waktu yang diberikan selesai mereka harus digantikan oleh regu yang lainnya. Begitu seterusnya hingga seluruh hadiah yang digantungkan pada puncak batang pisang tidak ada yang tersisa lagi.

Jalannya Permainan
Permainan panjat pisang diawali dengan pengundian untuk menentukan regu mana yang akan memulai. Cara menentukannya mirip seperti Ariel-Luna Maya, eh salah maaf, arisan yaitu menuliskan nama-nama regu yang akan bermain dalam secarik kertas kecil lalu digulung dan dimasukkan ke dalam botol atau gelas kemudian dikocok. Regu yang gulungan kertasnya pertama keluar dari botol akan mendapat giliran pertama untuk bermain, sedangkan regu lainnya sesuai dengan urutan kertas yang keluar selanjutnya.

Setelah proses pengundian selesai, maka regu pertama yang terdiri dari dua orang akan segera memasuki arena permainan. Orang pertama yang biasanya berbadan lebih besar akan berjongkok dekat batang pisang, sedangkan orang kedua akan berdiri di atas pundaknya sambil memegang batang pisang. Selanjutnya orang pertama akan berdiri secara perlahan, sementara kawannya akan berusaha sekuat tenaga untuk memanjat batang pisang yang sangat licin karena telah diberi oli.

Setiap regu akan diberi waktu sekitar dua menit untuk dapat mencapai puncak batang pisang dan mengambil hadiahnya. Apabila suatu regu berhasil atau tidak berhasil mencapai puncak batang pisang, maka setelah waktu yang diberikan selesai mereka harus digantikan oleh regu yang lainnya. Begitu seterusnya hingga seluruh hadiah yang digantungkan pada puncak batang pisang tidak ada yang tersisa lagi.

Nilai Budaya
Nilai yang terkandung dalam permainan yang disebut sebagai panjat pisang ini adalah: kerja keras, kerja sama, dan sportivitas. Nilai kerja keras tercermin dari semangat para pemain untuk dapat mencapai puncak batang pisang dan mengambil hadiahnya. Nilai kerja sama tercermin dari kekompakan para pemain ketika sedang bermain. Dan, nilai sportivitas tercermin tidak hanya dari sikap para pemain yang tidak berbuat curang saat berlangsungnya permainan, tetapi juga mau menerima kekalahan dengan lapang dada. [Ali Gufron]

[Permainan Rakyat Jawa Barat]

Enfield Thunderbird A350E (2005)

Technical Specifications
Enfield Thunderbird A350E (2005)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Exhaust
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 4-stroke, single cylinder, OHC
70.0 x 90.0 mm (2.8 x 3.5 inches)
346 cc
2 valves per cylinder


27.12 Nm (2.8 kgf-m or 20.0 ft.lbs) @ 3500 rpm
Carburettor, Ucal-Mikuni CV
5-speed
Chain
Wet Multiplate
Electronic CDI
Kick & electric starter
Wet sump
Single bazooka chromed cast-iron



Dimensions
Frame type
Castor
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)

Cast iron

2120 mm (83.5 inches)
750 mm (29.5 inches)

1370 mm (53.9 inches)
740 mm (29.1 inches)
140 mm (5.5 inches)
170 kg
14.5 litres
Silver, red, blue, black
Hydraulic forks
ES Nitrox gas-damped twin coil springs
3.25-R19
3.50-R19
Single disc 280 mm with 2-piston calipers
Expanding brake (drum brake)

Image: http://www.2wheelsindia.com/2008/11/royal-enfield-launches-thunder-bird.html

Cultural Norms and Their Impact On Families

By Andrew Sandon

How do we know whether there are cultural norms, what they are, and how they affect family patterns? Family historians often rely on popular literature, essays, and diaries to reveal long-term changes in family values. Another approach is to evaluate the effects of economic or demographic forces on family and to appeal to culture or changes in attitudes to explain historical trends that cannot be attributed to those factors. Survey researchers potentially could introduce measures of attitudes into their analyses. For instance, the Comparative Study of Elderly in Asia project organized focus groups with elderly parents and middle-aged children in four countries to probe their expectations and experiences with coresidence (summarized by Milagros et al. 1995). More typical in research on the East Asian family is the approach taken by Logan, Bian, and Bian (1998). They identify some practical circumstances that promote new family traditions as well as some patterns that seem consistent with traditional attitudes as described by Levy, such as patrilocal residence by married children.

China is an ideal case for the study of change and transformation due to its experience of rapid industrialization. Within four decades, China was transformed from a trading hub end to an industrialized economy based on mass production of different products. The China state's prescriptions for the family have always been rather straightforward and simple, corresponding closely with economic imperatives. However, quickly-implemented shifts in the nature of the country's economic development have meant that family policies have likewise experienced abrupt turnarounds.

As China embarked on its development into a rational industrial society, childbearing couples were advised that "Two is (more than) enough." Aligned to this policy of small families were affiliated policies governing access to public housing. Education policies were also calibrated to meet family imperatives. The country's state-led industrialization was based primarily on cheap labour.

By way of contrast, as acute labour shortages and corresponding spiraling costs began to hinder growth, selected groups-especially the educated-were urged to have larger families. An array of tax incentives was established, not dissimilar to those designed to attract foreign investments, to encourage an increase in reproductive rates amongst those with higher incomes. These economic-driven changes in family policy produced concomitant changes in labour force and education profiles by gender. The female labour participation rate rose (Unger, 2003, p.76)

Levy (1949), an early family sociologist, saw signs of a process of social change in which cultural values and material conditions would evolve together, creating what he considered a more modern family pattern. Levy described the traditional family as a unit with strong partriarchal authority and patrilineal descent, in which "one of the sons marries and continues to live with the parents, while the other sons and daughters marry and go out of the family unit" (55-56). Urbanization and industrialization, he believed, would result in rising living standards and employment of women outside the home. Hence sons and daughters would tend to have more similar roles, and daughters would be granted greater autonomy and respect. Individualism would result in according more weight to children's' needs as individuals, and less to respect to parents, as the basis of intergenerational relations. The implications of these cultural and material changes for coresidence were clear to Levy: it would decline in frequency, especially for married children; it would lose its strong preference for living with sons; and it would grow more responsive to adult children's needs (rather than parents' desires).

Because current family patterns in China still resemble those of the time when Levy was writing, half a century ago, contemporary researchers suggest that traditional norms have proved unexpectedly resilient and adaptable to new conditions (Whyte,1973, p.184). Davis-Friedman (1991) has suggested that "filial behavior served the state as well as the individual, and past and present definitions of family obligations effectively merged. . . . In the context of socialist ideology and the reality of persistent scarcities, traditional ideals supportive of intergenerational solidarity survived, and were reproduced in succeeding generations" (128-29). Referring to the role of parents in marriage decisions, Riley (1994) similarly reasons that "there are both cultural and structural reasons for the continuing involvement of parents" (802). Riley, like Davis-Friedman, argues that "the combination of strong family norms and particular aspects of a socialist economy has actually served to strengthen intrafamilial ties" (791).

Economic conditions have only served to subvert citizens' cognitive autonomy and their capacity to rethink a new paradigm to cope with the impact of economic transformations on social reproduction (Goode, 1970, p.35).

Preliminary research indicates that Chinese families today are just as enamored of love, intimacy, and the family as are their wage-worker counterparts of the industrialized West (on the latter see Beck and Beck-Gernsheim 1995, Blankenhorn 1990, and Hareven 1996: 20). A survey of 22-year-old young Chinese adults shows that 90 per cent are desirous of marriage and having children (Straits Times 2000: 1). In the world of love (in contrast to the crass world of commerce and selfish interests), one can seek a small Utopia where there is sharing, cooperation and passion. In order to study the issue of changing family values we interviewed young Chinese man Ted who comes from middle-class family in Pekin, China. Ted told us about three-generations of his family. Therefore, comparing the evidence obtained from the interview with Ted to recent findings about social context in China we can conclude that family values in China did not change significantly but to some extent.

Straddling economic imperatives, state prescriptions, and popular romantic ideals propagated by the culture industry, this study reveals families in the process of knitting together their own family mosaics. Whether these daily activities can ultimately bring happiness to family members, however, is an issue that remains indeterminate.

Common elements that describe "the family" that are found across classes, cultures, and genders in China include the "family as basic social unit" carrying connotations of "stability", "mutual support", "haven" and "warmth" (Pan&Naigu, 2003, p.12). In response to the question of "what is the family," For Sue, a 49-year-old Chinese mother and Ted's aunt, the concept of family elicited associations of "the ideal of mutual affection and support, spending time together, consideration, personal sacrifices and care, and a husband taking responsibility for the wellbeing of the family."

In China state legitimation is fundamental to the definition of the appropriate family form. For instance, co-habitation is still frowned upon and mentioned only in hushed tones. Couples will normally be coy and not openly admit to their co-habitation (Sheng, 1991, p.45). Ted's brother had an indelible stigma due to his parents' divorce and his mum having a "live-in" boyfriend. He could only use the word "step-father" hesitatingly, when the word "uncle" did not suffice to convey his meaning. As single parent, Sue, Ted's aunt, had to work conscientiously to compensate her children because her act of divorce had burdened them with the label of "abnormality" and "strangeness." Mandy, Ted's 20-year old sister, had and affair with a married colleague and that case simultaneously ostracized her and left her exposed to verbal abuse by colleagues. One of her colleagues made remarks such as "slut" fill her with guilt and shame. While buying into the new concept of romance associated with pleasure and hedonistic consumption touted by cultural tastemakers, Mandy could not escape the old concept of romance that closely ties in to morality, domesticity and marriage. For Mandy, the concept of marriage comprises passion, romance and love, in no uncertain terms. Her romance with her partner was all-consuming. But alas, their romance was marred by the fact that their union was not recognized by the public.

The dominant ideal of the family in China also portrays a similar bias towards the primacy of blood bonds and the predominance of blood ties as the basis of family formation (March and Miall 2000; Glenn 1991; Claxton-Oldfield 2000). Our investigation reveals that in case of remarriage involving older children, the tendency was for mutual rejection between step-parents and their step-children. For instance, Chin, 18-year-old Ted's cousin, rejected outright her mother's current live-in boyfriend, even though the latter had spent years trying to nurture her. Chin was uncomfortable as she struggled with feelings of dislike and alienation, all because her mother's boyfriend was not her own biological father.

Additionally, for the traditional Chinese, a male child is a normal requirement for family stability and continuity. 48-year-old Kim, Ted's aunt, felt guilty and ashamed for not producing an heir for her husband. She continued having children in the hope of landing a son and thus erasing her guilt over failing to fulfill her promised role of mother and wife. For most Chinese, sons serve as keepers of family altars. They also perform the funeral rituals when their parents pass away. Such is the strength of ideology that even when it is revealed that males have a biological role in the determination of the sex of the child, most women continue to feel guilty if they do not produce a male child (Geertz, 2001, p.56).

However, depending on the status and role of Ted's family members, parts of the cultural ideal of the family actually differ in emphasis for various persons. For working class women like Sue, topmost in their mind is the hope that they can stop work when they marry and have a family. On the other hand, graduate educated women like Melissa, Ted's sister, dream of fulfilling their desire of a high-powered career. Having to give up a job to care for husband and child would represent a sacrifice. For the educated confident woman, the ideal of a family was one where her husband's salary could support paid domestic help to free her from the chores of domesticity

For a man, family is a comfort zone made possible by a non-working wife. 54-year old Ted's uncle, a textile shop-owner, believes that a wife's job is to take care of husband's needs and she should also be the one doing all the housework.

Older men see themselves as authoritarian heads of dependent broods, including the wife and children. The state's open acknowledgement that authoritarianism and "strong leadership" are good for the country (Tremewan, 1994, p.56) perhaps encourages men to openly tout their authoritarianism as a macho trait of which they should be proud.

Comparing Ted's responses about three generations of his family allows for the observation of behavior transformation over the family life cycle. While first-generation women are absolutely identified with the family and have no concept whatsoever of the self, those of the second generation display an emerging self-concept that asserts itself only when faced with extreme suffering. Young women of the third generation, however, can build on experiences of previous generations and have benefited from universally available educational opportunities and globalization of local cultures. They therefore have more options for modeling their selfhood and family life. Divorce for this generation is still stigmatized but is an option because women are educated enough to take advantage of the tight labour market.

The case of Tedd's grandmother Wong, aged 80, shows the values of the first-generation women. Her marriage to a gambler proved to be a disaster, but she continued in the marriage to avoid the social censure of being labeled "unclean" and "polluted". Also, as a wife, she had to "follow whomever you marry". Slogging hard as maid and dishwasher she tried supporting six children, but soon had to give two of them away, a boy and a girl. Despite such sufferings, she hung on to the belief that a "woman's place is always in the family." She could not understand how "modern women can prioritize their careers at the expense of neglecting their children." She views her mistake as one of not choosing the right man for a husband. But ultimately, Grandma Wong believes a working-class woman has to "bow down to life" and be filial, not only to her own parents but also to her mother-in-law.

Grandma Wong's daughter, Li, now 54, continued with the traditional sacrificial role destined for poor uneducated older daughters. She was a substitute mother for her siblings even after her marriage, when she worked at home as a baby sitter. However, hers is a vision of an expanded role for women as good wife, daughter, and filial daughter-in-law. She sees women carrying a heavy load that also includes bringing in food into the home. This is evident in her own role of supporting her taxi driver husband's meager income with some sewing and child-care.

In contrast, daughter Amy, who has a tertiary education and is in her thirties, has chosen to remain single. She ignores the advice and pressures from relatives and friends. She believes that "women have the right to pursue their ideal lifestyle," and categorically rejects the role played by her own mother and grandmother. Amy does not see herself as a "sacrificing wife and daughter-in-law who does everything for the family." Additionally, having witnessed the sacrifices of friends and colleagues who have all given up their dreams of career and fun, she did not want to go their way.

Easy access to education and a tight labor market for female labor appear to be the chief driving forces shaping change in family ideology (Jamieson, 1998, p.44). These conditions have successfully impressed upon women a certain level of confidence which has led to their pioneering new flexible roles for themselves, their spouses, and their children.

Our comparisons across three-generation families that were based upon the interview with Ted reveal the intricacies involved when families "do their own thing," that is, accept, accommodate, or reject old ideologies. While our interview disclosed grandparents clinging faithfully to ideologies dismissive of selfhood for wives and daughters, they also show grandchildren sliding easily into new economic roles and autonomy. These findings lead us to see the Chinese family and society in a new light compared to past research. At the surface there is visible evidence of apparently traditional behaviors (a high rate of coresidence). Beneath the surface is a system unlike the traditional society envisioned by modernization theory. Parents can choose from a broad array of cultural models. They tend to express more traditional values if these meet their needs and otherwise to adopt a more modern outlook. Parents' family behavior, we conclude, represents strategic decisions among diverse choices provided by their culture, a more active and dynamic process than would be expected in a traditional society.

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Enfield US Classic 350 (2005)

Technical Specifications
Enfield US Classic 350 (2005)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Exhaust
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 4-stroke, single cylinder, OHC
70.0 x 90.0 mm
346 cc
2 valves per cylinder
7.2:1
18 hp (13.4 kW) @ 5626 rpm
27 Nm (19.9 ft. lbs) @ 2875 rpm
Carburettor, Micarb VM 24
6-speed
Chain
Manual, Multiplate Wet Clutch
Battery Coil Ignition
Kick starter
Dry Sump, Pressure Feed




Dimensions
Frame type
Castor
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)



2120 mm (83.5 inches)
750 mm (29.5 inches)
1080 mm (42.5 inches)
1370 mm (53.9 inches)
760 mm (29.9 inches)
140 mm (5.5 inches)
163 kg
14.5 litres

Telescopic, Hydraulic Damping, 150 mm travel
Swing Arm With Adjustable Shock Absorbers, 130 mm travel
3.25-R19
3.50-R19
Drum 178 mm
Drum 152 mm

Image: http://motorcycle-specs.com

Ghezzi-Brian SuperTwin (2005)

Technical Specifications
Ghezzi-Brian SuperTwin (2005)
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Exhaust
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Air-cooled, 90° v-twin, 4-stroke
92.0 x 80.0 mm
1064 cc
2 valves per cylinder
9.5:1
87 hp (64.9 kW) @ 7500 rpm
88 Nm (64.9 ft. lbs) @ 6250 rpm
Weber Marelli electronic injection system
5-speed
Cardan
Manual, Multiplate Wet Clutch
Digital
Electric starter





Dimensions
Frame type

Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)

Suspension (rear)

Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)

Steel single beam with Engine as stressed part; T.I.G. welded;
rear progressive working swingarm T.I.G.
23 degrees
2030 mm (79.9 inches)
700 mm (27.6 inches)
1090 mm (42.9 inches)
1405 mm (55.3 inches)
790 mm (31.1 inches)

192 kg
16 litres

Paioli upside-down Hydraulic telescopic fork 41 mm with three
settings
Hydraulic Ohlins monoschock absorber with separate tank and
three settings
120/60-R17
180/55-R17
Dual disc 420 mm with 4-piston calipers
Single disc 240 mm with 4-piston calipers

Image: http://www.motonline.com/nuovo/ghezzi-brian/ghezzi-brian-supertwin-1100/

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