Motorola KRZR K1

Specifications
Motorola KRZR K1
Network2G
3G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
103 x 42 x 16 mm
102 gram
TFT, 256K colors
176 x 220 pixels, 1.9 inches, 30 x 37 mm (~148 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 x 20 fields, Photo call
40 dialed, 40 received, 40 missed calls
20 MB
microSD
DataGPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10


v1.2 with A2DP

v1.1
FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, EMS, MMS, Email, Instant Messaging
Vibration; Downloadable polyphonic, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML


Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
CIF
Cosmic blue, silver sail
MIDP 2.0
- Loudspeaker
- Second external CSTN, 256K colors display (96 x 80 pixels)
- Screensavers and wallpapers
- Downloadable logos
- MP3/AAC/AAC+ player
- Predictive text input
- Organizer
- Voice memo
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 700 mAh (BC50)
Up to 300 h
Up to 6 h

Image: http://www.oopshi.com/59/the-motorola-krzr-k1.html

Honda Civic Type R

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Emission
Transmission
Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios





Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, in line 4 cylinder, DOHC, i-VTEC
86.0 x 86.0 mm
1998 cc
11.0:1
148 kW @ 7800 rpm
193 Nm @ 5600 rpm
Euro 4
6-speed (manual)
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Stabiliser bars
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior













Exterior


Monocoque

4285 mm
1785 mm
1445 mm
5.6 m
2635 mm
1505 mm
1530 mm
120 mm
1345 kg
1700 kg
Electric power steering
50 litres
4 persons
MacPherson strut
Torsion beam axle
Front & rear
225/40 R18
225/40 R18
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Accent lighting (red)
- Accessory power outlet (12V)
- Air conditioning (Dual zone climate control)
- Aluminium drilled pedals
- Aluminium foot rest
- Ashtray
- Auto dimming rear view mirror
- Cruise control
- Central locking
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Door pockets (all doors)
- Tachometer
- Multi-information display
- Bumpers (impact absorbing)
- Door handels (Matte silver)
- Exhaust, Dual (chrome)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Front wipers (Auto 2-speed variable intermittent
with rain sensor
)
- Rear spoiler
- Mirror integrated indicators

Image: http://www.latestcar.us/honda/honda-civic-type-r-by-mugen.html

Honda Civic Hybrid (2009)

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Emission
Transmission
Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, in line 4 cylinder, SOHC, i-VTEC
87.0 x 99.0 mm
1339 cc
9.3:1
85 kW @ 6000 rpm
170 Nm @ 2500 rpm
Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV)
CVT with Grade Logic Control (automatic)
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


- IMA system (Integrated Motor Assist)
Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Stabiliser bars
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior














Exterior


Monocoque

4550 mm
1750 mm
1430 mm
10.8 m
2620 mm
1565 mm
1565 mm
110 mm
1265 kg

Electric power steering
50 litres
5 persons
Independent
Double wishbone
Front & rear
195/65 R15 91H
195/65 R15 91H
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Air conditioning (climate control)
- Ashtray
- Central locking
- Comprehensive interior illumination
- Cruise control
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Driber's footrest
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Glovebox
- Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Vanity mirrors
- Central locking
- Door pockets (all doors)
- Tachometer
- Bumpers (impact absorbing)
- Door handels
- Fog lights
- Electric sunroof
- Exhaust, Dual (chrome)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Front wipers (2-speed and variable intermittent)
- Rear spoiler

Image: http://paultan.org/2009/02/10/honda-civic-hybrid-gets-new-price-rm-129980/

Honda Civic Sport (2009)

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Transmission

Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, in line 4 cylinder, DOHC, i-VTEC
87.0 x 99.0 mm
1998 cc
9.3:1
114 kW @ 6200 rpm
188 Nm @ 4200 rpm
5-speed (manual)
5-speed with Grade LogicControl (automatic)
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Stabiliser bars
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior














Exterior


Monocoque

4550 mm
1750 mm
1435 mm
10.8 m
2620 mm
1565 mm
1565 mm
115 mm
1265 kg

Electric assist
50 litres
5 persons
MacPherson strut
Double wishbone
Front & rear
215/45 R17 91V
215/45 R17 91V
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Air conditioning (climate control)
- Ashtray
- Central locking
- Comprehensive interior illumination
- Cruise control
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Driber's footrest
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Glovebox
- Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Vanity mirrors
- Central locking
- Door pockets (all doors)
- Tachometer
- Bumpers (impact absorbing)
- Door handels
- Electric sunroof
- Exhaust, Dual (chrome)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Front wipers (2-speed and variable intermittent)

Image: http://www.themotorreport.com.au/26095/2009-honda-civic-si-released-in-australia

Honda CR-V Luxury

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Transmission

Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, in line 4 cylinder, DOHC, i-VTEC
87.0 x 99.0 mm
2354 cc
9.3:1
125 kW @ 5800 rpm
218 Nm @ 4200 rpm
6-speed (manual)
5-speed with Grade LogicControl (automatic)
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded (RON 91)

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior














Exterior


Monocoque

4565 mm
1820 mm
1680 mm
5.5 m
2620 mm
1565 mm
1565 mm
185 mm
1580 kg
2040 kg
Electric power steering rack and pinion
58 litres
5 persons
MacPherson strut
Multi-link double wishbone
225/65 R17
225/65 R17
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Comprehensive interior lighting
- Cruise control
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Driber's footrest
- Front seat armrest
- Air conditioning (Dual zone climate control)
- Central locking
- Door handles (Body coloured)
- Door pockets
- Sunroof
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Lights-on warning, Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Double deck cargo shelf
- Laggage cover
- Tachometer
- Body coloured bumpers (Impact absorbing)
- Door handels (black)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Front wipers (Auto variable intermittent with
rain sensor
)
- Rear wiper

Image: http://www.hondasbelowinvoice.com/cr-v/

Nokia 5330 Mobile TV Edition

Specifications
Nokia 5330 Mobile TV Edition
Network2G
3G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
UMTS 850 / 1900 / 2100
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
101 x 48 x 14 mm
113 gram
TFT, 16M colors
240 x 320 pixels, 2.4 inches (~167 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
2000 entries, Photocall
20 dialed, 20 received, 20 missed calls
70 MB
microSD, up to 16GB, 1GB included
DataGPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 32

Class 32, 296 / 178.8 kbits
384 kbps

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
FeaturesOS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS, MMS, Email
Vibration; Downloadable polyphonic, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Stereo FM radio with RDS

Yes
3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels, enhanced fixed focus, LED flash
QVGA@15fps
Glossy black, glossy white
MIDP 2.1
- Speakerphone
- 2.5 mm audio jack
- Dedicated touch music keys
- Videocalling
- DVB-H broadcast receiver
- MP4/H.263/H.264/WMV player
- MP3/eAAC+/WAV/WMA player
- Voice memo
- Flash Lite 3.0
- Predictive text input
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1000 mAh (BL-4U)
Up to 350 h
Up to 7 h 42 min

Image: http://www.ameinfo.com/images/news/5/89745-1NokiaMobileTVe5330.jpg

Honda CR-V

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Transmission

Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, in line 4 cylinder, DOHC, i-VTEC
87.0 x 99.0 mm
2354 cc
9.3:1
125 kW @ 5800 rpm
218 Nm @ 4200 rpm
6-speed (manual)
5-speed with Grade LogicControl (automatic)
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior












Exterior


Monocoque

4565 mm
1820 mm
1680 mm
5.5 m
2620 mm
1565 mm
1565 mm
185 mm
1580 kg
2040 kg
Electric power steering rack and pinion
58 litres
5 persons
MacPherson strut
Multi-link double wishbone
225/65 R17
225/65 R17
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Comprehensive interior lighting
- Cruise control
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Driber's footrest
- Front seat armrest
- Air conditioning
- Central locking
- Door handles
- Door pockets
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Lights-on warning, Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Tachometer
- Body coloured bumpers (Impact absorbing)
- Door handels (black)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Wipers (2-speed and intermittent)
- Rear wiper

Image: http://www.autobytel.com/content/shared/articles/templates/index.cfm/article_id_int/8357

Honda City VTi (2009)

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Transmission
Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, SOHC, i-VTEC, Inline 4 cylinder
73.0 x 89.4 mm
1497 cc
10.4:1
88 kW @ 6600 rpm
145 Nm @ 4800 rpm
5-speed (manual)/ (automatic) with Grade Logic Control
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior












Exterior


Monocoque

4410 mm
1695 mm
1470 mm
5.0 m
2550 mm
1490 mm
1475 mm
150 mm
1110 kg
1540 kg
Electric power steering rack and pinion
42 litres
5 persons
MacPherson strut
Torsion beam
175/65 R15
175/65 R15
Ventilated disc
Solid disc
- Steering wheel mounted audio control
- Speed-sensitive Volume Compensation (SVC)
- Advanced Compatibility Engineering (ACE)
- Air conditioning
- Central locking
- Dashboard warning lights
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Door handles
- Door pockets
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Lights-on warning, Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Tachometer
- Body coloured bumpers (Impact absorbing)
- Door handels
- Headlights (halogen)
- Keyless entry
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Wipers (2-speed and intermittent)

Image: http://forum.lowyat.net/topic/974282

Asal Usul Danau Lipan

(Cerita Rakyat Daerah Kalimantan Timur)

Zaman dahulu kala daerah Muara Kaman, sekitar 120 kilometer arah hulu Tenggarong, ibukota Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara merupakan sebuah lautan. Tepi lautnya ketika itu berada di Berubus, yang saat ini bernama Kampung Ulu atau Benua Lawas. Pada saat itu di Barubus ada sebuah sebuah kerajaan yang bandarnya sangat ramai dikunjungi orang.

Kerajaan itu tidak hanya terkenal karena bandarnya saja melainkan juga karena ada seorang puteri cantik jelita yang bernama Putri Aji Bedarah Putih. Dinamakan demikian, tak lain karena bila sang puteri makan sirih dan menelan air sepahnya, maka tampaklah air sirih yang merah itu mengalir melalui kerongkongannya.

Kejelitaan dan sekaligus keanehan Putri Aji Berdarah Putih terdengar pula oleh seorang raja yang ada di daratan Cina. Merasa tertarik, Sang Raja Cina beserta bala tentaranya segera berangkat menggunakan sebuah jung besar untuk meminang Putri Aji Berdarah Putih.

Singkat cerita, sebelum menyampaikan pinangannya, Raja Cina terlebih dahulu dijamu dengan santap bersama oleh Sang Putri yang ternyata tidak hanya cantik melainkan juga pandai dan bijaksana. Dalam acara makan bersama itu Sang Putri merasa kaget sekaligus jijik melihat cara makan Raja Cina beserta beberapa orang pengawalnya. Mereka makan dengan cara menyesap, yaitu tidak mempergunakan tangan melainkan langsung dengan mulut seperti binatang.

Perbedaan budaya tersebut membuat Putri Aji Berdarah Putih merasa tersinggung. Dia merasa telah dilecehkan oleh Raja Cina. Alhasil, ketika selesai makan bersama dan lamaran Raja Cina diajukan, serta merta Sang Putri menolak dengan penuh murka sambil berkata, “Betapa hinanya seorang putri berjodoh dengan manusia yang cara makannya saja menyesap seperti anjing.”

Pernyataan itu tentu saja membangkitkan kemarahan luar biasa pada Raja Cina. Sudah lamarannya ditolak mentah-mentah, hinaan pula yang diterima. Ia pun segera menuju ke jung untuk kembali dengan segenap bala tentaranya guna menghancurkan kerajaan dan menawan Sang Putri. Perang dahsyat pun terjadi.

Namun, dalam perang tersebut bala tentara Aji Berdarah Putih tidak dapat menangkis serbuan tentara Raja Cina yang mengamuk dengan garangnya. Sang Putri yang menyaksikan jalannya pertempuran yang tidak seimbang merasa sedih bercampur geram. Ia merasa bahwa peperangan itu akan dimenangkan oleh tentara Raja Cina. Sang Putri segera memakan sirih pinang seraya berucap, “Kalau benar aku ini titisan raja sakti, maka jadilah sepah-sepahku ini lipan-lipan yang akan memusnahkan Raja Cina beserta bala tentaranya.”

Selesai berkata demikian, diseburkannyalah sepah dari mulutnya ke arah peperangan yang tengah berkecamuk. Dan, dalam sekejap mata sepah sirih Sang Putri tadi berubah menjadi ribuan ekor lipan berukuran sangat besar yang langsung menyerang pasukan Raja Cina.

Satu demi satu bala tentara Raja Cina yang gagah perkasa itu dibinasakan. Sisanya, termasuk Raja Cina, segera lari lintang pukang menuju jung hendak meninggalkan Muara Kaman. Tetapi ternyata pasukan lipan tidak memberi kesempatan mereka untuk meninggalkan Muara Kaman Hidup-hidup. Dengan bergelombang mereka menyerbu terus sampai ke perahu jung hingga Raja Cina beserta seluruh pengawalnya tewas. Raja beserta para pengawalnya itu akhirnya di tenggelamkan bersama dengan jung mereka.

Dan, tempat jung Raja Cina tenggelam yang saat ini telah mendangkal dan menjadi daratan dengan padang yang luas kemudian diberi nama dengan Danau Lipan.

Diceritakan kembali oleh Gufron

Motorola MC55

Specifications
Motorola MC55
Network
2G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
152 x 77 x 27 mm, 85 cc
336 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 65k colors
240 x 320 pixels, 3.5 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Practically unlimited
256 MB storage, 128 MB RAM
microSD, up to 8GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 12 (4+1/3+2/2+3/1+4 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 12

Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g
v2.0

v1.1 host and client
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Microsoft Windows Mobile 6.1 Professional
520 MHz Intel PXA270 processor
SMS, MMS, Email, Instant Messaging
Vibration; Polyphonic, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML

A-GPS support
Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels, autofocus, LED flash
Yes
Black
MIDP 2.0
- QWERTY keyboard
- Loudspeaker
- Barcode scanner
- Shock resistant
- Drop-to-concrete resistance up to 1.2m
- Operating temperature -10C to 50C
- Push-to-talk service
- Snap-on magnetic stripe reader
- 1D and 2D barcode scanners
- MP3/AAC music player
- Voice memo
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 2400 mAh
Up to 100 h
Up to 6 h

Image: http://ruggedpcreview.com/3_handhelds_mc55.html

Honda SH300i

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Liquid-cooled, 4-stroke, 4-valve, SOHC, single cylinder
72.0 x 68.5 mm
279.1 cc
2 valves per cylinder
10.5:1


PGM-FI electronic fuel injection
V-Matic
V-belt
Automatic; centrifugal
Digital transistorised with electronic advance
Electric starter





Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)

Brake (rear)


38.0°
2100 mm
730 mm
1220 mm
1420 mm
785 mm
136 mm
175 kg
9 litres

33mm telescopic fork, 100mm axle travel
Dual-damper unit swingarm, 95mm axle travel
110/70 16 (52P)
130/70 16 (61P)
256 x 4.5mm hydraulic disc with triple-piston,
calliper and sintered metal pads
256 x 5mm hydraulic disc with single-piston,
Calliper and sintered metal pads

Image: http://www.farnhamhonda.co.uk/sh300i.html

Honda Forza-X (2007)

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Liquid-cooled 4-stroke 2-valve OHC single cylinder
72.7 x 60 mm
250 cc
2 valves per cylinder
10.0:1
14.3 kW @ 7500 rpm
21.1 Nm @ 5500 rpm

V-Matic continuously variable
V-belt

Fully transistorised with electronic advance
Electric starter





Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)


38.0°
2165 mm
760 mm
1180 mm
1545 mm
710 mm
140 mm
175 kg
12 litres
Black, blue
33mm telescopic fork, 100mm axle travel
Dual-damper unit swingarm, 95mm axle travel
110/90–13M/C 55P
130/70-12 62P
Hydraulic disc 240 mm with 3-piston caliper
Hydraulic disc 240 mm with single-piston caliper

Image: http://www.bikesales.com.au/bike-valuations/results.aspx?

Empal Gentong

Resep: Erwin Kuditawati

Bahan
150 gr babat rebus, potong-potong
200 gr limpa rebus, potong-potong
250 gr daging sapi, potong-potong
1500 ml kaldu sapi
2 lbr daun salam
2 btg serai, memarkan
1 sdm garam
1 sdt gula pasir
300 ml santan dari 1 btr kelapa
2 sdm minyak untuk menumis

Haluskan
8 bh bawang merah
6 siung bawang putih
4 btr kemiri
3 cm kunyit bakar
1 sdt lada

Bahan taburan
2 tangkai kucai, potong-potong
4 sdm bawang goreng
6 sdm cabai kering, tumbuk kasar

Cara membuat
Rebus daging sapi sampai matang, angkat, sisihkan kaldunya.

Tumis bumbu halus, daun salam, dan serai, sampai harum. Tambahkan babat, limpa, dan daging sapi, aduk rata.

Masukkan kaldu, garam, gula, didihkan. Tambahkan santan, masak sampai matang, lalu hidangkan panas-panas disertai bahan taburan.

Untuk 5 orang

Sumber: http://female.kompas.com/read/xml/2010/04/16/15530246/empal.gentong

Rujak Ternate

Resep: Erwin Kuditawati

Bahan
300 gr daging mangga indramayu yang mengkal, dipotong panjang
1 sdm garam
150 gr gula pasir
2 sdt garam
2 sdm air lemon

Cara membuat
Remas-remas mangga dan garam hingga layu, diamkan selama 30 menit, lalu bilas hingga bersih.

Masukkan gula, garam, dan air jeruk lemon.

Diamkan dalam lemari es selama 1 jam sebelum disajikan.

Untuk 5 porsi

Sumber: http://female.kompas.com/read/xml/2010/04/20/12342991/rujak.ternate

Timlo Solo

Resep: Erwin Kuditawati

Bahan
5 bh sosis solo
5 pasang ati ampela ayam
500 ml air
3 siung bawang putih, haluskan
½ sdt garam
½ sdt lada bubuk
1 cm jahe, memarkan
2 lbr daun jeruk

Bahan kuah
1500 ml air
2 ptg paha ayam
3 siung bawang putih, iris
4 bh bawang merah, iris
1 btg daun bawang, potong-potong
1 sdm garam
½ sdt lada bubuk
½ sdt gula pasir
2 sdt kecap asin
2 sdm minyak untuk menumis

Sambal kecap
(aduk rata)
15 bh cabai rawit merah, haluskan
5 sdm kecap manis

Pelengkap
Telur pindang
Bawang goreng

Cara membuat
Rebus hati, ampela ayam, bawang putih, garam, lada, jahe, dan daun jeruk sampai matang. Angkat, potong-potong.

Buat kuah: rebus ayam sampai lunak, potong-potong ayam, lalu rebus lagi. Tumis bawang putih, bawang merah hingga harum, tuang ke dalam rebusan ayam. Bumbui garam, lada, dan gula. Setelah matang, masukkan bawang goreng.

Masukkan potongan ati ampela ke dalam mangkuk, tambahkan irisan sosis solo, dan telur pindang yang dipotong-potong.

Siram dengan kuah panas, hidangkan dengan taburan bawang goreng dan sambal kecap.

Untuk 5 orang

Sumber: http://female.kompas.com/read/xml/2010/04/21/17402542/timlo.solo

BlackBerry Curve 8520

Specifications
BlackBerry Curve 8520
Network
2G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
109 x 60 x 13.9 mm
106 gram
TFT, 65K colors
320 x 240 pixels, 2.46 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photocall
Yes
256 MB
microSD, up to 32GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps

Wi-Fi 802.11b/g
v2.0 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
BlackBerry OS
512MHz processor
SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, IM
Vibration; Polyphonic(32), MP3 ringtones
HTML


Yes
2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
QVGA
Black
Yes
- QWERTY keyboard
- Touch-sensitive optical trackpad
- Loudspeaker
- Dedicated music keys
- MP3/eAAC+/WMA/WAV player
- MP4/H.263/H.264/WMV player
- Voice memo/dial
- Predictive text input
- Organizer
- Calculatorbl
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1150 mAh
Up to 408 h
Up to 4 h 30 min

Image: http://www.feedberry.com

Mi Aceh

Resep: Hindah Muaris, pemerhati kulinologi

Bahan
500 gr mi kuning basah
750 ml kaldu sapi
100 gr udang basah, bersihkan, buang kulitnya
200 gr daging kambing atau sapi, potong dadu
1 bh tomat, potong dadu
5 btr bawang merah, iris tipis
100 gr tauge, bersihkan
100 gr kol, iris tipis
2 sdm kecap manis (secukupnya)
2 btg daun bawang, iris halus
2 sdm irisan daun seledri
1 sdt garam (secukupnya)
1 sdt merica bubuk
1 sdt bumbu kari bubuk
2 sdm minyak goreng, untuk menumis

Bumbu halus
10 btr bawang merah
6 siung bawang putih
4 bh cabai merah
3 bh cabai rawit
1 ruas jari kunyit
1 ruas jari jahe
4 btr kapulaga
1 sdt jinten sangrai
1/2 sdt adas manis sangrai
1 sdt ketumbar sangrai

Pelengkap
Emping goreng
Acar mentimun
Jeruk nipis

Cara membuat
Tumis bawang merah hingga harum, masukkan bumbu halus, aduk. Masukkan daging, aduk hingga berubah warna. Tambahkan udang dan kaldu. Masukkan tomat, seledri, daun bawang, garam, kari bubuk dan merica. Masak hingga daging matang.

Masukkan kol dan tauge, aduk rata. Tambahkan mi dan kecap manis. Aduk hingga rata dan matang. Angkat.

Tata dalam mangkuk, sajikan dengan acar dan emping goreng. Perciki dengan perasan jeruk nipis.

Untuk 6 porsi

Sumber: http://female.kompas.com

Mi Ayam Bangka

Resep: Hindah Muaris, pemerhati kulinologi

Bahan
500 gr mi kuning basah
150 gr sawi hijau, potong- potong, rebus sebentar
150 gr tauge besar, bersihkan

Tumis ayam
2 sdm minyak sayur
1/2 sdt minyak wijen
2 siung bawang putih, cincang halus
250 gr daging ayam, potong kecil
100 gr jamur merang, potong kecil
2 sdm saus tiram
2 sdm kecap asin
1 sdm kecap manis
1/2 sdt merica bubuk
1 sdt garam
150 ml air kaldu

Pelengkap
Air kaldu ayam
Bawang merah goreng
Daun bawang, iris halus

Cara membuat
Tumis ayam: Panaskan minyak goreng dan minyak wijen, tumis bawang putih hingga harum. Masukkan ayam, aduk hingga kaku, masukkan jamur, bumbu lain, dan air kaldu. Masak hingga mendidih dan kering. Angkat.

Didihkan air secukupnya, rebus mi hingga mengapung. Angkat dan tiriskan.

Cara menyajikan
Taruh sedikit minyak sayur atau minyak ayam dan kecap asin dalam mangkuk. Masukkan mi panas, aduk-aduk hingga rata. Tambahkan tumis ayam, siram dengan air kaldu, tambahkan sawi rebus, tauge, dan taburi pelengkap sesuai selera. Sajikan panas-panas.

Untuk 6 porsi

Sumber: http://female.kompas.com

Honda VT1300CX (2010)

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type
Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Liquid-cooled, 4-stroke, 52° V-twin
89.5 x 104.3 mm
1312 cc
2 valves per cylinder
9.2:1


PGM-FI with automatic enricher circuit
5-speed

Wet multi-plate
Digital with three-dimensional mapping
Electric starter
Wet sump



1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)

Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)


38.0°
mm
mm
mm
1809 mm
678 mm
mm
309 kg
12.87 litres
Black, blue
45mm fork telescopic fork
Single shock with adjustable rebound damping and
five-position spring preload adjustability
90/90-21
200/50-18
Single 336mm disc with combined 3 piston caliper, ABS
Single 296mm disc with combined Twin piston caliper, ABS

Image: http://www.teammoto.com.au/teammoto-magazine-enews-01-10-2009_1.php

Honda VFR800F (2008)

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Valves
Compression ratio
Max Power
Max Torque
Fuel system
Transmission
Final drive
Clutch
Ignition type

Starting system
Lubrication
Intake system
Spark plug
Battery
Gear ratios

Liquid-cooled 4-stroke 16-valve DOHC 90º V-4
72.0 x 48.0 mm
781.7 cc
4 valves per cylinder
11.6:1
80 kW @ 10500 rpm
80 Nm @ 8750 rpm
PGM-FI electronic fuel injection
6-speed constant mesh
‘O’-ring sealed chain
Wet multi-plate
Computer-controlled digital transistorised with electronic
advance
Electric starter
Wet sump



1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
Dimensions
Frame type
Rake
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Wheelbase
Seat height
Ground clearance
Dry weight
Fuel capacity
Colors
Suspension (front)

Suspension (rear)

Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)

Brake (rear)



2120 mm
735 mm
1195 mm
1460 mm
805 mm
130 mm
213 kg
22 litres

43mm H.M.A.S. cartridge-type telescopic fork with
stepless preload adjustment, 109mm axle travel
Pro-Link with gas-charged H.M.A.S. damper, 7-step
preload and stepless rebound damping adjustment
120/70 ZR17M/C (58W)
180/55 ZR17M/C (73W)
Dual floating hydraulic disc 296 mm with combined
3-piston calipers and sintered metal pads
Single hydraulic disc 256 mm with combined 3-piston
caliper and sintered metal pads

Image: http://www.bargainshopper.ca/honda-sportbikes/honda-VFR800F.htm

Honda Jazz GLi

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Transmission
Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, Inline 4 cylinder, SOHC, i-DSI

1339 cc

61 kW @ 5700 rpm
119 Nm @ 2800 rpm
5-speed/CVT with Grade Logic Control
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior













Exterior


Monocoque

3845 mm
1675 mm
1525 mm
9.8 m
2250 mm
1355 mm
1365 mm
125 mm
1035 kg
1010 kg

42 litres
5 persons
MacPherson strut
Torsion beam
185 / 55 R15 82V
185 / 55 R15 82V
Ventilated disc
Drum, Leading and Trailing
- Accessory socket
- Air conditioning
- Central locking
- Convenience hook (Front passenger seatback)
- Cup holders
- Dashboard warning lights
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Door handles (black)
- Door pockets
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Courtesy light, map lights and cargo area
- Lights-on warning, Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Tachometer
- Bumpers (Impact absorbing)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Power door mirrors
- Rear window demister
- Rear wiper

Image: http://www.goauto.com.au/mellor/mellor.nsf/story2/FC24CFCF1EAE62AACA2574B400193DC8

Honda Jazz VTi-S

Technical Specifications
Engine
Engine type
Bore x Stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Max power
Max torque
Transmission

Clutch
Fuel system
Fuel type
Drive system
Gear Ratios




Reverse
Final gear

Liquid cooled, Inline 4 cylinder, SOHC, VTEC

1497 cc

81 kW @ 6000 rpm
143 Nm @ 4800 rpm
5-speed/CVT with 7-speed sequential shift and
Grade Logic Control
-
Honda Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
Unleaded

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th


Dimensions
Frame type
Body type
Colors
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Turning radius
Wheelbase
Front tread
Rear tread
Ground Clearance
Curb weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Steering
Fuel capacity
Seating cap
Suspension (front)
Suspension (rear)
Tyre (front)
Tyre (rear)
Brake (front)
Brake (rear)
Interior













Exterior


Monocoque

3855 mm
1675 mm
1525 mm
9.8 m
2250 mm
1355 mm
1365 mm
125 mm
1065 kg
1040 kg

42 litres
5 persons
MacPherson strut
Torsion beam
185 / 55 R15 82V
185 / 55 R15 82V
Ventilated disc
Drum, Leading and Trailing
- Accessory socket
- Air conditioning
- Central locking
- Convenience hook (Front passenger seatback)
- Cup holders
- Dashboard warning lights
- Digital clock (in radio)
- Door handles (chrome)
- Door pockets
- Driver's seat height adjuster
- Courtesy light, map lights and cargo area
- Lights-on warning, Low fuel warning
- Power windows
- Tachometer
- Bumpers (Impact absorbing & sports type)
- Front fog lamps
- Front wiper ( 2 speed & intermittent)
- Headlights (halogen)
- Power door mirrors
- Rear tailgate spoiler
- Rear window demister
- Rear wiper
- Side sill garnish

Image: http://www.honda-2010.com

Samsung W960 AMOLED 3D

Specifications
General
Network
GSM 900 / 1800 / 1900
HSDPA 2100
Size
Dimensions
Weight
Display
113.9 x 53.9 x 13.9 mm
120.6 gram
AMOLED 3D capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
240 x 400 pixels, 3.2 inches
Memory
Phonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 entries, Photocall
Yes

microSD (TransFlash) up to 16GB
Data
GPRS
HSCSD
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps

Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA, HSUPA

v2.1 with A2DP

v2.0 microUSB
Features
OS
CPU
Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java


SMS(threaded view), MMS, Email
Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones
HTML


Yes
3.2 MP, 2048x1536 pixels, autofocus
Yes
Black
Yes, MIDP 2.1
- Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
- Gesture control
- Turn-to-mute
- Touch Wiz 2.0 UI
- Speakerphone
- DMB TV
- MP4/H.264/H.263 player
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+ player
- Document viewer (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF)
- Voice memo
- Calculator
- Organizer
- Calendar
- Alarm
- T9
Battery

Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Ion 1150 mAh
Up to 425 h (2G) / Up to 460 h (3G)
Up to 6 h (2G) / Up to 10 h (3G)

Image: http://www.gsmarena.com

LG Fathom VS750

Specifications
LG Fathom VS750
Network2G

3G
GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
CDMA 800 / 1900
HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1900 / 2100
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO
SizeDimensions
Weight
Display
115 x 56 x 17 mm
152 gram
TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors
480 x 800 pixels, 3.2 inches (~292 ppi pixel density)
MemoryPhonebook
Call records
Internal
Card slot
1000 entries, Photocall
Yes
256MB RAM, 512 MB ROM
microSD, up to 16 GB
DataGPRS
EDGE
3G
WLAN
Bluetooth
Infrared port
USB
Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps
Class 10, 236.8 kbps
HSDPA 7.2 Mbps
Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n
v2.1 with A2DP

microUSB v2.0
FeaturesOS
CPU

Messaging
Ringtones
Browser
Radio
GPS
Games
Camera
Video
Colors
Java
Microsoft Windows Mobile 6.5 Professional
Qualcomm QSD8250 Snapdragon
1 GHz Scorpion, Adreno 200
SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM, RSS
Vibration, MP3 ringtones
WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML

A-GPS support
Yes
3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels, autofocus
VGA@30fps
Black
MIDP 2.1
- Loudspeaker
- 3.5mm jack
- QWERTY keyboard
- MP3/WAV/eAAC+/WMA player
- MP4/H.263/H.264 player
- Document viewer/editor
- Organizer
- Voice memo/dial/commands
- Predictive text input
- Clock
- Calendar
- Alarm
Battery
Stand-by
Talk time
Standard battery, Li-Po
Up to 475 h
Up to 7 h

Image: http://www.phoneblog.com/cell-phone-news/lg-fathom-vs750-announced/

Traditional Medicine in the Balkans

By Codrut Tutu

Nowadays the Balkans is an area spared of the active, polluting industry of the rest of the planet. Thousands of years ago the Balkans were very sparsely populated, which made it possible for anyone to occupy it and settle there. Because of the favorable climate, the Balkans was occupied by Slaves, Greeks, Turks and by other smaller migratory nations who came from the Asian parts as a rule. All of them found here good earth and climate for development and for the future. In the Balkans, both the climate is very good and the drinkable water is pure, taking into account that there are many mountainous massifs that make it possible.

Traditional medicine has deep roots in each nation's cultures and customs. In the past it used to be very closely connected with religion. As a rule, the priests of various religions (and we must mention here that each nation had its deities) were also physicians. As a matter of fact, medicine and religion have been intertwined or very closely connected ever since there was a recorded history of Earth. Here we must mention the examples of Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islamism. It is a proven fact that, in all religions, irrespective of the deities they believed in, the physician was also a priest in 70% of the cases.

Obviously, it is easy to understand why there used to be such a close connection at the beginning of the civilizations. The reason is that religion means unity, connections towards a goal, namely mysticism and deities. Or, medicine means treatment of the body. In old times, mysticism and treatment of the body were connected.Traditional medicine is as old as the human being, because – when the human being has been born – he needed medical care; only the traditional medicine could provide such care.

The Balkan physicians treated rich and poor alike; it didn't matter how rich you were, it mattered only how ill you were and what the priorities were. Writing on little stone slabs dating back thousands of years bear evidence that physicians in the Balkans made an oath before gods, an oath by which they engaged themselves to treat all patients, irrespective of their wealth. Skulls were found, dating more than 5 thousand years back, bearing marks of surgery, namely trepanations, which had been so accurately performed, that surgeons envy the precision of the intervention even today. Hence a lot of questions arise: what devices could the first generations possibly have had, as long as metals and metalwork were discovered only much later? How did the surgeons at that time know to perform this kind of surgeries, when the science of surgery discovered them only much later? How could possibly exist writing techniques so advanced that the stone slabs were made to last for thousands of years without being completely eroded?

Physicians of those times were a highly respected category. We can infer it from the drawings that were found, depicting the deity, the priest and the physician as well as the figure of the last one wearing a crown on his head, which meant that he was the king of the people. We find in the same writings that 1) a sick man was treated according to his ailment (it is what we call diagnosing today); things like: 2) how the ailment occurred (we call it the cause of the disease today), 3) how to get rid of the ailment (treatment) and 4) the history of the disease and the methods to eradicate it (which stands for pathology today). In old times, people used to guide themselves in the traditional medicine after certain principles such as: life is full of pain and suffering; life is the cause of all this pain; pain can be eradicated and, not in the least, there is a direction or a way leading to the eradication of all pain. In other words, unless we eliminate the causes of pain, we cannot find the real salvation or the salvation in truth.

At the beginning, they practiced traditional medicine as moral duty towards each suffering man, not as somebody's duty, somebody who would be praised for that. Later, this moral duty became a job, and it has remained a job to this day. The first civilizations may have been right. The traditional medicine should have been and should be only the moral duty of every man to help his kin even nowadays. At the beginning, the first civilizations who settled in the Balkans created a special branch in the medical field: health and the role of medicine for a healthy population. Because there were – and are at present, too - many nationalities in the Balkans, each of them had a god of health. Therefore several deities are known as the god of health, such as: Telecfor, Iazo, Panaceea, Asclepios, Macsaon, Podalirii and others. Orpheus, the Thracian god of medicine and music is well-known. At a much later date become known the works on philosophy and medicine written by Plato, Socrates, Pythagoras, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen.

One of the greatest physicians ever known, one who successfully treated every disease in the old times was Orpheus. He used to treat a great number of affections through herbs. The herb by means of which he treated the best is known as HABERLEA RHODOPENSIS today, or commonly called the Orpheus' flower. It successfully treats generalized cancer, but only if it is used in combination with very many other herbs. Orpheus' successor, Zamolxis - both a physician and a high priest – was the patron and the representative high figure of Thracian medicine. Information can be found in Herodotus' works about Zamolxis and about the downright wonders he worked through traditional medicine. In Plato's writings, in Harmid to be more precise, they say among other things: Zamolxis was the Thracians' emperor, but also their god. As their god, he helped his subjects get cured of every disease, by means of herbs. In the course of time, the Balkan medicine has proven that it can treat any affection by its methods, namely by herbal hydro-alcoholic extracts, dressings of medicinal herbs, in natural state or chewed. At the same time, it proved that you cannot treat the eye without treating the body, but also that you cannot treat the body without treating the soul.

Obviously, the Greek people acknowledged after a long time that the condition of one part of the body influenced the condition of the entire body. The Balkan traditional medicine proved that the soul is the source out of which everything, good as well as evil, would reflect upon the body and which would generally define the personality. The Balkan traditional medicine proved that we had to treat the problems of our head in the first place. Consequently, the rest of our body would be healthy. In the way he set up the medical science, even Hyppocrates, 460-377 before our era, father of modern medicine, was directly influenced by Zamolxis' treatment principles. Fundamentally, the Balkan traditional medicine employed water, herbs, music and the dialogue with the patient. The sick man was taken out in the sun, in the middle of the forest, when they applied him various procedures, it is a known and acknowledged fact. As he was treated, he could also listen to the song of the birds and to the music of the nature.

The Slave peoples, the Bulgarians, the Serbians, the Macedonians and the Thracians believed that it was demons that caused the disorders and the affections. They also thought at the beginning that the evil spirits' kiss brought the herpes or that evil spirits make children cry or make them trip and break a bone. They also believed that fairies or moires helped people get cured and helped them find the healing herbs. Later they believed that Tangra, their supreme god, taught them how to treat their kin and what herbs they should use. Much later, the medicine of these peoples came to a balance and the category of physicians was born who treated the population by means of herbal extracts, water or other things. The sick men were treated at their home or on the battle field by the traditional medicine physicians. The first known hospital dates back to the year of 369 our era. Later, the sick men were treated in an organized manner and within the precincts of every monastery.

In the course of time, the Balkan traditional medicine has had a very important role in the world. The herbal treatment is very rich in minerals, vitamins and many other things. The traditional medicine knows approximately 750 thousands medicinal herbs on Earth, out of which about 300 thousand ones are from the Balkans. In the traditional medicine, each part of the plant, such as the leaf, the flower, the stem, the fruit or the root – is used for something, either by itself or in combinations. Modern medicine has studied the effect of each herb scientifically. That is why we often find combinations between the herb or a part of it and biochemistry. Traditional medicine rejects this combination because – while by herbal extract or plain pure herbs the result is guaranteed – by combinations it is nothing but experiments. It has been proven so far that, through its experience and history, the Balkan medicine has treated and it still treats over 5 thousand affections. According to each particular issue area, the Balkan traditional medicine has its specific and its benefits. The traditional medicine specialist learns and trains himself in traditional medicine, which means that he knows the traditional medicine in all its complexity. Although very complex, the traditional medicine brings and will always bring the solution to each human health problem.

The Primordial Tradition

by Gwendolyn Toynton

“Remember that I have remembered / and pass on the tradition”

Ezra Pound, Cantos

The Primordial Tradition is an obscure and widely misunderstood term and although used repeatedly in the works of René Guénon and Frithjof Schuon, it still remains largely undefined. Perhaps the clearest description of the Primordial Tradition can be found in a more recent author, Houston Smith, a professor of comparative religion who was the first to utilize the Primordial Tradition as a substitute term for perennial philosophy. Smith attempts to justify his replacement of perennial philosophy with the new title of ‘The Primordial Tradition’ at the start of his major work Forgotten Truth: The Primordial Tradition in the introduction.

‘The reader will recognize the affinity of this thesis with what has been called “the perennial philosophy.” I am not unhappy with that phrase, but to bring out the fact that this particular philosophy nowhere originated, nor has it succeeded in maintaining itself operatively, save in a cultic context – a context that works to transform lives as well as minds – I prefer the less exclusively intellectual designation “the primordial tradition” (primordial: existing…from the beginning; fundamental.” (Oxford English Dictionary)

Smith’s motivation in adopting this premise is all too easily comprehendible – from it’s current standpoint of existing purely as a school of philosophy, the perennial philosophy sets itself apart from mundane daily existence, instead manifesting as purely intellectual phenomenon – the adaptation of the designated phrase to the Primordial Tradition provides this school of thought with a worldly and tangible presence, no longer purely existent in a cerebral content; Tradition as espoused by Houston Smith becomes accessible to the mainstream. Though the above quotation from Smith immediately explains that the Primordial Tradition is a substitute name for perennial philosophy, if we were to ask the common man on the street if he could explain to us the meaning of perennial philosophy, we would most likely receive a garrulous ‘no’ as a response, accompanied by a blank stare. Therefore, to discover the meaning of the Primordial Tradition, we must as point of necessity, first explain the nature of perennial philosophy.

Perennial Philosophy, also known as ‘philosophia perennis’ (Latin: Eternal Philosophy) was utilized by Gottfried Leibniz to designate the common, eternal philosophy hat underlies all religions, and in particular the mystical or esoteric components – in this way it is also similar to the Hindu idea of Sanatana Dharma. As such, the philosophia perennis is an intellectual transmission of gnosis, based on the study of the religions, not in isolation from each other, but rather in a conjunction wherein the underlying ideas converge, independent of the concept of communitas (as defined by Victor Turner as the social aspect in religion). Normally, because of the cultural boundaries exerted by the principle of communitas ‘religions are cut off from one another by barriers of mutual incomprehension’. Schuon elaborates on the nature of this cultural barrier further by stating that “There is no metaphysical or spiritual difference between a truth manifested by temporal facts and a truth expressed by other symbols, under a mythological form for example; the modes of manifestation correspond to the mental requirements of the different groups of humanity.” Here we see expressed the notion that the symbols found in religion have been equated as truth values – what lies at the root of mutual miscomprehension and mistranslations between cultures is not that some religions are inherently wrong or different to others, but rather that the principle of communitas, the social and communal mode of religious behaviour actually serves to distort and hide the essence of the symbols themselves. The same ties of communal religious behaviour that serve to bind a community together as a distinct cultural group, can also hinder the process of understanding different religious traditions.

This is quite similar to Kant’s interpretations of how religious solidarity is defined; it is not the universal meaning of the symbol (on in this case the Primordial Tradition) but rather how symbols are interpreted and applied to social behaviour within a specific community or culture.

As Kant sees it, genuine religious solidarity does not rest on the confession of a uniform symbol or creed anyway; Kant suspects such creedal formulas of contributing more to a spirit of hypocrisy within people and between them than to anything else. What unites believers in rational religion is not the content of their beliefs but the morality of their dispositions and their propensity to associate their moral vocation with the thought of God.

According to Schuon the link that connects the many different cultural strands of religious thought, is gnosis, or the philosophia perennis (which has already been explained as homologous with the Primordial Tradition). Therefore, to fully ascertain how there can be a ‘fluid’ transmission of gnosis occurring between different communities and social groups, and to fully understand what the Primordial Tradition actually is requires, as an a priori, a lucid and working definition of how gnosis is to be understood in this context. Returning again to the writings of Schuon, it is an important aspect of his philosophy that he draws a distinction between gnosis and sacred scripture, the latter of which Schuon regards as static and permanent.

The mode of manifestation of gnosis is ‘vertical’ and more or less ‘discontinuous’; it is like fire and not water, in the sense that fire arises from the invisible and can disappear into it again, whereas water has a continuous existence; but the sacred Scriptures remain the necessary and unchanging basis, the source of inspiration and criterion of all gnosis.

What is immediately apparent in this extract is that Schuon is ascribing to gnosis an intangible and erratic character, by comparing its qualities to fire. Though teaching and scripture provide fuel and sustenance for gnosis, ultimately the driving power and modus operandi of gnosis is the philosophia perennis and the Primordial Tradition which is the language of the symbol, which is contained in the interpretation of both scripture and sacred art. Symbols, images, semiotics – despite the wealth and plethora of the records of the exploration of man’s inner world through the medium of myth and legend, the science of the sub-conscious has long fallen into disregard, only being revitalized in comparatively recent times through the work of Carl Gustav Jung (Analytical Psychology), James Hillman (Archetypal Psychology) and Mircea Eliade (History of Religions). It has taken science almost 2,000 years to reclaim the knowledge and potency inherent in the discourse of myth – an almost irrefutable proof that empirical methods cannot quantify the core of any religious belief; namely wisdom. To quote René Guénon -

Truths which were formerly within reach of all have become more and more hidden and inaccessible; those who possess them grow fewer and fewer, and although the treasure of ‘nonhuman’ (that is, supra-human) wisdom that was prior to all the ages can never be lost, it nevertheless becomes enveloped in more and more impenetrable veils, which hide it from men’s sight and make it extremely difficult to discover. This is why we find everywhere, under various symbols, the same something which has been lost – at least to all appearances and as far as the outer world is concerned – and that those who aspire to true knowledge must rediscover.

Lost to consumerism, the oblivious masses, the meaning of the symbol, the interpretation of gnosis itself, isnow obfuscated – the exoteric shell remains, binding teachings together, but the inner heart, the esoteric tradition that veiled the highest mysteries in the tapestry and garlands of symbol have dissolved, crumbling from within to leave behind only the exterior corpus of teachings. To know, to understand – this is the core of gnosis, and it is the loss of this elusive element of religion that causes René Guénon to despair. The Modern World is truly one where God is Dead – yet curiously, this famous catch phrase ofNietzsche’s is not as atheistic as many would claim it to be. When Zarathustra uttered his grand proclamation, Nietzsche knew well its consequences. The phrase is itself an inversion of the value tables of the society of his day – it is the devaluation of the highest value. Nietzsche knew the void this would create in the spiritual life of man, and it is here that it becomes paramount that he must be recognized as an important thinker on religion as well as philosophy, for he postulated a number of concepts which are far from being purely atheistic in sentiment. His rejections and attitudes to religion are a reactionto the Christian doctrine of his day – to which ends it is no mere coincidence that he chose Dionysus as the adversary of the 'Crucified'. Even without considering Nietzsche’s fondness for Pagan Greece, a number of his thoughts are of deep significance to our understanding of the Primordial Tradition, such as the “Ur-Eine.”

The Ur-Eine - the primal oneness of things […] Later the Ur-Eine is another kind of phenomenal world, one which is not knowable to us.” But whatever is interpretational of different stages of Nietzsche’s development may be, the Ur-Eine represents his tortured longing to reach the deeper dimensions of being “which are not known to us”.

The concept of the Ur-Eine is also similar to the vast and great Collective Unconscious, as was theorised by Carl Jung, a past pioneer in the then emerging field of psychology. In terms of Jung’s hypothesis concerning the Unconscious and the influence of dreams and symbols upon man’s waking life, it is well known thatJung drew heavily upon mythological sources, applying cross-cultural interpretations to phenomenaoccurring within the psyche, such as the archetypes. The archetypes are a type of universal (in a similar manner to that which espoused by Plato in his own interpretation of Universals), which on the one hand can be said to contain a purely abstract truth, and yet on the other one can also infer that as an absolute occurrence of a tautological value, the archetypes in question are also possessed of a metaphysical existence. Jung himself was quite aware of the fact that his theory placed archetypes in a very liminal boundary region between the material and immaterial, and himself referred to the archetypesas ‘psychoids’.

The archetypes seemed close enough to the patterns he saw emerging in the theories and experiments of twentieth-century physics for him to conclude that archetypes are psychoids. By this he meant that they shape matter (nature) as well as the mind (psyche). They transcend the split between these two and are neutral toward it favouring neither one side nor the other.

The archetypes, functioning as what Jung terms as psychoids, are in fact operating also on the level of ‘God-Forms’ in that they themselves are symbols and/or representations of the respective deities. Elaborating on this in relation to his own system of belief, Jung expresses the following train of thought.

We know that God-images play a great role in psychology, but we cannot prove the [actual] existence of God. As a responsible scientist, I am not going to preach my personal and subjective convictions which I cannot prove…To me, personally speaking, the question whether God exists at all or not is futile. I am sufficiently convinced of the effects man has always attributed to a divine being. If I should express a belief beyond that…it would show that I am not basing my opinion on facts. When people say they believe in the existence of God, it has never impressed me in the least. Either I know a thing and then don’t need to believe it; or I believe it because I’m not sure that I know it. I am well satisfied with the fact that I know experiences which I cannot avoid calling numinous or divine.

From this passage it is amply illustrated that Jung did not base any of his theories on the archetypes or psychoids from a belief in the divine; his ideas were, at least to Jung’s line of reasoning, based on verifiable facts that he knows to exist. In this regard, the current dogmatic line of argument drawn between science and religion crumbles – for the study of religion as archetypes and symbols provides empirical evidence of recurrent ideas outside the regions of that which would be expected through the medium of normal cross-cultural contact. Therefore, the symbols of religion and myth are transformed from mere metaphor to a system of universal truths that will occur within all genuine religious traditions. The symbol then, becomes much more than a pictorial representation of an incident or ‘god-form’; rather it is lesser manifestation of the subject/object represented, and this is the core foundation to the understanding of all sacred art. In the words of Frithjof Schuon, “the understanding of some symbol it is enough to consider the nature of its form, secondly its doctrinal, and so traditional, definition, and finally the metaphysical and spiritual realities of which the symbol is the expression.” It is precisely for this reason, that religion and art will always be linked in ways which to many appear inexplicable. It is extremely common in both the philosophy of art and in the philosophy of religion, to explain both topics in terms of lacking a definable sense of purpose – hence the age old question, “What is art?” or “What is religious experience?” Science and logic will always fail to explain both art and religious belief, for both lie outside of the sphere of scientific evidence and mathematical truths. It is commonly accepted by academics studying the philosophy of religion today that a purely empirical attitude to explaining religious belief will always meet with failure.

Bernard Williams, perhaps the most distinguished analytic moral philosopher writing as the turn of the twentieth century, once speculated that there might be something about ethical understanding that makes it inherently unsuited to be explored through the methods and techniques of analytic philosophy alone. If that is true, the point may apply a fortiori to religion, in so far as religious attitudes, even more than moral ones, often seem to encompass elements that are resistant to logical analysis.

Neither the value of art nor the value of religion can be explained by recourse to logic and empirical systems of thought alone. Rather, the two subjects, sharing a common origin in the Primordial Consciousness, are more kindred than they are in opposition. The function of art and the function of the religion both operate on a level of subliminal aesthetics – a successful piece of art captures the same experience as a successful experience of the divine – it raises the mental state to what I will now refer to as a state of pathos or an appeal to emotion that strives to recapture the original state of either the artist or priest. It is this altered state of emotive pathos which is replicated in the observer though the transmission of a meme or the medium of thought that determines the success of failure of a both a piece of art and a sacred or ritual act. This is what the Tantric philosopher Abhinavagupta also sought to express in his theory of aesthetics, and correlates to his rasa theory. Notably we can also find the importance of the “flavour” expressed in the art theory of the Western philosopher David Hume. Similarly, Nietzsche also noted the similarity between aesthetic and religious experience, concluding the current path of religion (meaning that which is derived from the relatively modern Judeo-Christian current) was only one form which spirituality could have taken, for Nietzsche says that “Art and not morality is the true metaphysical activity of man.” John Cottingham elaborates further on the links between moral and aesthetic experience in his work the Spiritual Dimension.

Our religious (and moral and aesthetic) experience involves transformative ways of perceiving reality. And this points, incidentally, to something of a paradigm shift when we look, for example, at some of what have been considered traditional arguments for God’s existence. Every standard textbook in the philosophy of religion mentions the arguments ‘from religious experience’, or ‘from moral [aesthetic] experience’, as if what was involved was a kind of inference from one sort of act – roughly a fact about a certain kind of subjective occurrence – to a conclusion about a supposed objective correlate or external cause for the relevant experience.

The topic of the connection between the art of symbols and religious expression is also dealt with at length by Frithjof Schuon.

In speculations about formal elements it would be a handicap to lack this aesthetic function of intellect. A religion is revealed, not only by its doctrine, but also by its general form, and this has its own characteristic beauty, which is reflected in its every aspect from its “mythology’ to its art. Sacred art expresses Reality in relation to a particular spiritual vision. And aesthetic intelligence sees the manifestations of the Spirit even as the eye sees flowers or playthings.

This study of symbols is by no means a simple topic – to Schuon it is a precise science. Nor is it limited purely to symbolism – Schuon, like others authors before him, is connecting the mystic experience of the sacred to aesthetics, which he is defining as unique type of intelligence, distinct from the more earthly and aspects of cognition. When attempting to explain the science of symbols, Schuon’s definition is likewise complex; the interpretation of a symbol as a singular object is not deemed sufficient to understand its inherent qualities - rather what must be dwelt upon by the translators of religious semiotics is the relation of the symbol to other qualities, properties, objects and individual contexts.

The science of symbols – not simply a knowledge of traditional symbols –proceeds from the qualitative significances of substances, forms, spatial directions, numbers, natural phenomena, positions, relationships, movements, colours and other properties or states of things; we are not dealing here with subjective appreciations, for the cosmic qualities are ordered in relation to Being and according to a hierarchy which is more real than the individual; they are, then, independent of our tastes, or rather they determine them to the extent that we are ourselves conformable to Being; we assent to the qualities to the extent we ourselves are ‘qualitative.”

What defines the Primordial Tradition as a potential major current in religious belief and philosophy lies in its use of the symbol and its advocacy of the aesthetic experience – belief in the potency of any specific symbol relies upon the most basic human aspect of belief. Belief in a sentient god or creator is not even required, and by this explanation of religious belief and symbolism it is possible for even the most ardent ‘atheist’ to be a believer in the Primordial Tradition. In such regards, it is similar to the thoughts once espoused by Kant on Deism:

Essential to any deism is the view that there is such a thing as rational or natural religion, religion based on natural reason and not on supernatural revelation […] Kant is emphatic that there need not be any special duties to God in order for there to be religion; he also denies that theoretical cognition of God’s existence is required for religion – naturally enough he thinks that no such cognition is available to us. [..]this faith needs merely the idea of God…only the minimum cognition (it is possible that there is a God) has to be subjectively sufficient”

A symbol is of course, only a picture to those who cannot ascertain a deeper meaning. To those who are capable of learning this difficult code, it is reasonable to apply the following quotation: ex magna luce in intellectu sequitur magna propensio in voluntate (‘from a great light in the intellect there follows a great inclination in the will).It is not satisfactory to develop a rudimentary knowledge of the numinous – this alone is not sufficient to produce gnosis, which in its full manifestation must be grasped at both the level of the theoretical and the practical; the Primordial Tradition being composed of absolute ideals from different traditions and pathways, does not advocate a strict system of practice, but rather takes a philosophical stance in regards to practice that can be applied by any religious tradition. What is advocated in regards to the practical element is similar to that which is found in the Stoic school of thought. There were many Stoic treatises entitled ‘On Exercises’, and the central notion of askesis, found for example in Epictetus, implied not so much ‘asceticism’ in the modern sense as a practical program of training, concerned with the ‘art of living’. The primacy of praxis, the vital importance that is placed on the individual’s embarking on a path of practical self-transformation, rather than (say) simply engaging in an intellectual debate or philosophical analysis.

The general aim of such programmes was not merely intellectual enlightenment, or the imparting of abstract theory, but a transformation of the whole person, including our patterns of emotional response. Metanoia, a fundamental conversion or change of heart, is the Greek term; in the Roman Stoic Seneca it appears as a ‘shift in one’s mentality’ (translatio animi) or a ‘changing’ (mutatio) of the self. ‘I feel, my dear Lucilius,’ says Seneca, ‘that I am being not only reformed but transformed (non tantum emendari sed transfigurari).

The relevance here is of course part of the problem Houston Smith grasped earlier in his work The Forgotten Truth – perennial philosophy, in the forms which it had existed previously, was in danger of becoming over intellectualized, to the point where it was in peril of divulging from the point of being a system of religion to existing as a philosophy alone. Thus his purpose by recommending that perennial philosophy be renamed as The Primordial Tradition, was an attempt to revitalize what he saw as a failing system of ideology – the time of the great Traditionalists such as Julius Evola and René Guénon was over, and Houston Smith realized that a new tactic needed to be deployed in order for the philosophy to extend beyond the reach of an intellectual elite into the main stream culture. In a sense, he elected to effect a change within the nature and the delivery of Tradition itself. Here, we must also bear heed to Guénon’s warnings that Traditions can disappear:

It is evident that all traditional forms do not proceed directly from the primordial tradition and that other forms must have sometimes played the role of intermediaries; but the latter are most often traditions that have entirely disappeared, and those transmissions in general go back to epochs far too distant for ordinary history – whose field of investigation is really very limited – to be capable of the slightest knowledge of them, not counting the fact that the means by which they were effected are not among those accessible to its methods of research.

This passage also exemplifies the interpretation of the Primordial Tradition even further – it is not a single specific Tradition, but rather an underlying layer of universal truth which acts as a foundation for Traditions to evolve from, and at times dissolve back into. It is the substratum of human conscious itself and defines the nature of epochs and direction of history, whether man professes to believe in its existence or not. Thus far, interest in religion is on swift decline – it stands at the apex of a descent and interior degeneration that has been unparalleled in history; aided by the concurrent deterioration in the academic quality of the arts and the humanities, the material sciences have ascended to point of total domination. Under such an aegis, religion, the science of the spirit needs to be rethought, reshaped, and reconstructed from the very foundations of thought itself to survive in this era. As such, the Primordial Tradition delivers what should rightly be termed a sui generis argument for religion and spirituality from which there is no defense short of an outright denial of the fundamental concepts of the social sciences as we know them today – it applies the study of the translation of symbols as a logical argument, and manifests itself as a rational system of human belief, as opposed to the more traditional arguments from a religious perspective, such as the teleological model or the more commonly resorted to argument from religious experience which occur frequently in philosophical discourse on religion. From this perspective, it should be apparent that the concept of the Primordial Tradition has far more in common with the comparative mythology of Georges Dumézil or the study of the History of Religions as espoused by the author Mircea Eliade than it has with the currently accepted philosophical models for religious debate. In general, however the study of religion at an academic level is rapid decline, which is echoed throughout the modern world – religion, the science of the soul, is facing oblivion. As it stands religion and spirituality must either take a stand or face total extinction as modernity further encroaches into man’s private world of the spirit; the only methodology by which to promote any religious or spiritual thought in this age, is to restructure it, to change people’s most basic and rudimentary understanding of what religion is. To quote Houston Smith there is but one way left to achieve this in the current sociological and political climate, “Short of a historical breakdown which would render routine ineffectual and force us to attend again to things which matter most, we wait for art: for metaphysicians, who imbued with that species of truth that is beauty in its mental mode, are (like Plato) concomitantly poets”.

Gwendolyn Toynton is the editor and one of the writers at Primordial Traditions Journal . She has also been published in the New Zealand Poetry and Prose Collection 2002 as well as having a number of articles published. Gwendolyn Toynton is also a Masters Student in the Religious Studies program at the University of Canterbury, specializing in Hinduism and Tantra.

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